Efficacy of a shampoo product (Bolfo® Flohschutz-Shampoo, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Federal Republic of Germany) containing 0.1%(W/W) propoxur, a carbamate insecticide, was evaluated against fleas on dogs. A piece of round filter paper was put on the bottom of 10 Petri dishes, 9cm in diameter and 7cm high. The shampoo product was spotted on the filter paper of 5 of the 10 dishes in amounts of 10μg, 50μg, 100μg, 200μg, and 400μg, calculated as the active ingredient. A blank shampoo formulation without propoxur, 2 kinds of dog shampoo product without any insecticides, and distilled water were spotted on the filter paper of 4 dishes in 360μl portions corresponding to the quantity of the tested shampoo product containing 400μg propoxur. The last dish served as the non-treated control. Ten Ctenocephalides canis each were placed in each dish. All the fleas were knocked down in dose-relation within 24 hours in the 5 dishes with propoxur, whereas fleas were hardly knocked down in the other dishes. Clinical trials were further carried out with 60 dogs infested by C. canis and/or C. felis. The dogs were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals each, and the groups were categorized as: 1) the propoxur-containing shampoo sprayed group, 2) the propoxurnon-containing blank shampoo sprayed group, 3 & 4) the normal dog shampoo sprayed groups (2 groups), 5) tap water sprayed group, and 6) the non-treated control group. Fleas were particularly absent in the dogs treated with the propoxur shampoo product. Refering to the results of both the in-vitro and in-vivo tests, it is concluded that the shampoo product containing 0.1% propoxur can be considered as an efficacious and fast acting insecticidal remedy against fleas on dogs.
In order to produce an attenuated vaccine strain of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus, we attempted to isolate the variants by plaque-cloning from chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultureadapted RF-1 strain of IBD virus. Two types of attenuated plaque variants (clones Lp and Sp) were established. The Lp clone formed large plaques with a uniform diameter of 5mm in CEF cultures, whereas the Sp clone produced only small plaques with a uniform diameter of 1mm. Distinct differences between the two clones were also observed in terms of pathogenicity for chick embryos and growth capability in CEFcultures. s Neither of the clones could be distinguished from the parent virus by a cross-neutralization test, and the clones possessed enough immunogenicity to protect chickens when challenged with virulent wild-type IBD virus. The minimum effective immunizing doses of Lp and Sp clones necessary for the protection were 104 and 105 TCID50, respectively. When Lp and Sp clones were tested for their pathogenic properties in one-day-and 4-week-old chickens with respect to clinical symptoms and lesions in the bursa of Fabri-cius, the two clones were found to be more attenuated than the parent virus. These clones had safety and immunogenic potency in accordance with the current “Minimum Requirement of Live Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine for Chicks”. The Lp clone had more immunogenic potency and higher growth capability in CEF cultures than the Sp clone, suggesting that the Lp clone promises to be useful as a live vaccine strain.
A total of 360 broiler chickens (25-day-old) allocated into 2 rooms, were inoculated with Escherichia coli (0 group-78) isolated from a case of colibacillosis in poultry through aerosol, on the 4th day after NB live vaccine administration. This strain was relatively insensitive or resistant to various antibiotics (doxycycline). The chickens in each room were divided into 2 groups, medicated with doxycycline, Vibra Vet, (24 mg per kg of body weight with drinking water at 27 or at 27 and 29-day-old) and non-medicated groups. The death rate due to coli septicemia in the medicated groups was less than that in non-medicated groups. After 21 days of isolation the medicated group showed a lower mortality rate, better weight gain and feed efficiency in comparison with the non-medicated group in both rooms.
Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamoyldasone were applied to artificial canine and swine S. miescheriana infections respectively with no recognizable therapeutic effects. To control Sarcocystis infections, cyst-infected muscles and sporocysts were treated at different temperatures. Intramuscular cysts were inactivated at 56°C for 5 min. or -22°C for 24 hours, while sporocysts were inactivated at 70°C for 5 min., but not at -22°C for as long as 10 days.
From August to September, 1984, an epidemic of swinepox occurred in a certain region of Okayama Prefecture, where approximately 20 swine farms exist. All pig breeds were affected by swinepox at a rate of 24.3%. Clinical symptoms included skin rashes which disappeared after one month. Hyperplasia of the stratum spinosum, intranuclear vacuoles and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions were revealedhistopathologically. After 5 or 6 blind passages in PK-15 cells, viral agents which caused CPE (i. e. rounding of infected cells) were isolated. The isolated virus was susceptible to ether, pH of 3.0 or heat treatment at 56°C for 30 min. Also, the viral nucleic acid was revealed to be DNA. Fowl, rabbits, mice and chorioallantoic membranes of embryonated chicken eggs were refractory to infection with the virus. In infected cells virus particles with the characteristic morphology of poxvirus were detected electron microscopically. Also, striated lamellar structures characteristic of swinepox virus infection were observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. When the virus was inoculated into the skin of piglets by the multiple-puncture method, pocks were produced only at the immediate area of inoculation.
During the export quarantine, 3 of 80 goats, from 16 farms in Nagano Prefecture, died of pneumonia due to infection with Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 2 in March 1985. A serological survey on P. haemolytica (serotype 2) infection was carried out using indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test. The antigen of the IHA was prepared from glutaraldehyde-fixed sheep red blood cell, sensitized with heat extracted antigen of the bacilli. Sixty-five (81%) of 80 sera from the goats on the second day of quarantine showed 1: 4 or more IHA-antibody titer and the geometric-mean was 10.3. The positive sera were distributed in 15 of 16 farms. When IHA was performed with 9 pair-sera (interval of 14-16 days) in 27 goats which manifested respiratory symptoms, significant increase of the antibody was observed in 3 pair-sera.
The subject was a one-year-old, male, mongrel dog suffering from an incurable dermatitis with pruritus, symmetrical alopecia and incrustation. After various treatments, clinical and clinicopathologica examinations for more than one year, he was euthanatized and submitted for pathological examination. Histopathologically, skin lesions were composed of subcorneal pustules with mild acantholysis and negative IgG depositions, suspected as subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD).
From August to November 1987, 105 cattle in Kagoshima Pref. became affected with Ibaraki disease; major symptoms included foamy hygrostomia, water regurgitation, laryngopharyngeal paralysis, and fever. Sixteen of the cattle died. Virological and pathological examinations were conducted in four of these 16 cases, and the following findings were obtained: 1) Isolation of the pathogenic virus was attempted in two of the cows, and Ibaraki virus was detected in both cases. 2) The dead cows showed neutralizing antibody titer of 1: 4 to 1: 2048 or more. Of 14 cows which had been in the same herd with these cows and apparently looked healthy, 6 cows showed positive reaction against the antigen. 3) Macroscopically, there appeared esophageal chalasia and dilation, hemorrhage and white spotting of esophageal muscle, hemorrhage in pharyngeal muscle, hepatization and emphysema of the lungs, foamy fluid retention in bronchus, and pus-like pituita in the nasal cavity. 4) Histologically, hyaline degeneration, lysis, and disappearance of myocytes, nuclear swelling in myocytes, and hyperplasia of interstitial connective tissue were evident in esophageal and pharyngeal musculature. Serious calcification was observed in 2 cases. The lung developed serious foreign body pneumonia, and oral and esophageal glands were swollen and destroyed. In one case, atrophy and necrosis of cardiacmuscular cells and mild hyperplasia of interstitial connective tissue were observed. 5) The cause of death was considered to be acute aspiration pneumonia induced by dysphagia due to laryngopharyngeal and esophageal paralysis.
In 1987, 200 of 4000 108-day-old chickens demonstrated general weakness, paleness of the comb, emaciation and paralysis; 86 eventually died. Eight chickens from the flock were examined etiologically and pathologically. Severe anemia was observed in four of five chickens by hematological examination. At necropsy, hepatic and splenic enlargemens were observed in all chickens, and discoloration of the femoral bone marrow in three of the five chickens was macroscopically observed. Avian leukosis virus of group A was isolated from two of three chickens tested. Histopathological examination revealed that proliferation of neoplastic myelocytes containing an enlarged nucleus and eosinophilic granules the liver, spleen, lung and stomach. Marked proliferation of myelocytes was observed in femoral bone marrow of two chickens examined. From these findings, this disease was diagnosed as myelocytomatosis.