The safety of a 1%(W/W) powde rfbrmulation of a carbamate imecticide, propoxur (Bolfo® 1% powder, Bayer Japan Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) when administered orally to dogs was investigated. Sixteen dogs were divided into four groups of four animals each; and one group was a non-treated control and the other three groups were treated with an oral administration of propoxur in 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg, and 20mg/kg dosages, respectively. Clinical findings, including body temperatures, pulses, and respiratory rates, were examined every day from one week before to three weeks after administration. Hematological and blood chemical examinations were carried out on days -7, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21. The observed findings, presumably due to propoxur, were decreases in erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts, a decrease in the hematocrit value, rise of serum a-amylase activity, and depression of serum cholinesterase activity; but all of the findings resumed the normal, pre-treatment levels within 7 days. From these results, it was concluded that propoxur 1% powder would have no severe adverse effects on dogs at the usual dosages of 20 mg/kg or so, even if dogs orally intake the powder dusted to the skin.
It was applied fiberscopically for direct observation of the innerwall surfaces of tubular organs. Since the tip of the fiberscope is placed in the center of the catheter balloon-which can be inflated when desired with water or saline via a small tube within the others we were able to avoid blockage of the organ. When used for observation of the stomach, rectum, vagina, bladder, and other tubular organs, this method has the advantage over the fiberscope of not having a lens which may adhere to mucosal linings. It could also, be used for observation of the inner cardiac wall by introduction via the jugular vein. This catheter presents great handling ease; however, diffused reflections of the fiberscope light may occur on the balloon wall, which disturb observation. Thus, efforts should be made to improve the balloon's inner wall coating as well as the choice of perfusion media.
The time of appearance and subsequent transformation of proventriculus and gizzard lesions were studied in embryos and chicks of broiler. In proventriculus, only a small number of erosions with haemorrhage were observed just before and after hatching. On the other hand, haemorrhages and erosions in gizzard were observed at a high rate. Haemorrhages occured at a high rate in newly hatched chicks, and the incidence of this lesion were remarkably reduced after 2 days old. Gizzard erosion appeared after 2 days of age and the incidence increased from 6 days old chicks. Haemorrhages appeared mainly at site IV and occasionally at sites I and II, while erosions, at site I. Histopathologically, congestion of the cappillaries and desquamation of surface epithelial cells were seen in haemorrhagic lesion. Haemorrhagic lesion was restored immediately. At the first stage of erosion, cavitation in the horizontal koilin layer caused by a depression of secretion of surface epithelial cells and an increase of desquemated cells was observed. Ulceration occured in severe cases. The gizzard haemorrhagic lesions showed no correlation with the occurrence of erosion.
The prevalence of antibodies to Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in NagasakiPrefecture of Japan was carried out by complement-fixation test. Serum samples were collected from 1658 pigs in 220 farms during the years 1983-86. Fifty-five strains of A. pleuropneumoniae isolated from pneumonic lesions during 1985 to 1987 were serotyped by coagglutination test. The positive rate (titer≥1: 10) of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were 9.0%(150/1658), and the antibody titer (geometric mean) of these positive sera were 1: 11.4. There was no difference between fattening pigs and breeding pigs. In breeding pigs, positive rates of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 were decreased gradually with advance in parity, while antibody titer (GM 1: 14.9) of raising pigs (female) in positive sera were higher than other groups (GM 1: 10.0 1: 11.5). The positive rates of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in breeding pigs, produc ed out of Nagasaki Prefecture, were significantly higher than that in breeding pigs, produced in Nagasaki Prefecture, however, there was no difference in the antibody titer of positive sera. Fiftyfour (24.5%) of 220 pig farms had antibodies against A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5. The positive rate of antibodies to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 were 56.8% in 1658 pigs and 80.5% in 220 farms examined. The geometric mean antibody titer of these positive sera were 1: 37.5. Of 55 A. pleuropneumoniae strains, 7 (12.7%) were identified as serotype 5, and the other stains were identified as serotype 2. Our results showed that a considerable number of pigs were infected with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 in Nagasaki Prefecture, suggesting that many of these infected pigs have the potential for developing pleuropneumonia, or spreading A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 to other normal pigs. Further, it is possible that A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 infection may be spreading throughout in Japan.
A total of 76 Salmonella strain (70 S. typhimurium and 6 S. dublin) isolated from calves in 1984 to 1987 were examined for drug resistance and prevalence of R plasmids. High incidence of multiple drug resistance was observed in the S. typhimurium strain, of which over 60% showed multiple resistance to tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol (CP), streptomycin (SM), kanamycin (KM), aminobenzylpenicillin (ABPC), and salfOnamide (SA). Of 57 drug-resistant Salmonella strains (51 S. typhimurium and 6 S. dublin) examincd, 41 (72%) wcrc found to carry R plasmids, capablc of performing a conjugal transfer.
Seventeen plasma samples, obtained from wounded or diseased wild boars (Sus scrofa) which had been captured in the vicinity of Kobe city for the purpose of protection, were examined for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (Tp) by the latex agglutination (LA) test. Nine of the 17 samples tested gave positive reactions (≥32). Nine positive samples had LA titers of ≥128; five of these were fractionated by the sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and each fraction was reassayed by the LA-test. Anti-Tp IgG antibodies were detected in one 20-day-old and two day-old infant boars. These IgG antibodies were interpreted as maternal antibodies, suggesting that their dams had been infected with Tp. One adult female exhibiting two peaks of IgG and IgM antibodies was considered to be in the initial stage of infection. The results of the present survey indicate that Tp is prevalent among wild boars inhabiting the suburbs of Kobe city and warn that boars should be handled with great care to prevent Tp infection.
Acid phosphatase activities, used in the diagnosis of human and bovine leukemia as a marker of T cell population, were studied on the lymphocytes separated from clinically healthy pigs. The ratio of acid phosphatase activity positive cells was clearly higher in rosette forming lymphocyte (43.6±5.7%) than in non-rosette forming cells (11.6±4.8%). Among the seven cases of swine leukemia, (multicentric type: 6 cases, thoracic type: 1 case), found during meat inspection processes in Tokushima city Shokuniku center abattoire and Nippon meat packer's Tokushima abattoire, the acid phosphatase activity was detected in tumor cells and/or lymphocytes from 2 cases of multicentric type and 1 case of thoracic type. These results indicated that the cytochemical staining of acid phosphatase activity could be applicable to the diagnosis of swine leukemia as a T cell marker.
Clinical and pathological findings on the amyloidosis of a dairy cow are described. A 79 monthold cow showed lack of appetite, watery diarrhea, emaciation, cutaneous edema and proteinuria after parturition, and was slaughtered at 29 days of illness. Biochemically, hypoproteinemia, decreased albumin, and increased α and γ globulin were observed. Histopathologically, severe amyloid deposits were observed in the Disse's spaces of the liver associated with diminished amyloid deposition in the renal glomeruli.
A disease characterized by nervous symptoms such as blindness, and circling and running movements occurred in calves during a period from February, 1985 to February, 1986 on a farm in Kagoshima Prefecture. Five dead calves were examined. Histopathologically, intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of lead poisoning were found in the tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. An excessive amount of lead was detected in the blood, kidney and liver by the biochemicalexaminations. As the result, the cases were diagnosed as lead poisoning.