An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit of plasma/serum Progesterone (P)(Cambridge Life Science Ltd., U. K.) was evaluated for practical use in bovine reproduction. The measurable range of plasma P was between 0.6 and 10.0ng/ml. Intra-assay cofficients of variation (CVs)(n=6) of plasma P levels from three pooled plasma samples were 11.9%(mean=1.11 ng/ml), 11.6%(2.25 ng/ml) and 7.4%(6.07ng/ml). The inter-assay CVs of P levels from other pooled samples were 22.4%(0.86ng/ml), 25.2%(2.22ng/ml) and 17.8%(6.39ng/ml). The time required for the whole procedures was within 2 hours. A significantly high correlation (r=0.903, P<0.005, n=27) was observed between P levels determined by this kit and the values obtained by a double antibody EIA. The early pregnancy diagnosis of heifers based on P levels 22-24 days after insemination showed an accuracy rate of 100%(14/14) for negative results and 60.9%(25/41) for positive cases. The P levels estimated by this kit was also useful for a differential diagnosis of anestrous cows with a functional corpus luteum and those with inactive ovaries, The plasma P EIA kit may be successfully applied to heifers as a tool of reproductive management and a diagnostic aid for ovarian dysfunction.
Changes of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP), transaminase (GOT, GPT) and bilirubin levels after a single administration of carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, α-naphthylisothiocyanate or ethionine were studied in dogs 5-10 months old. The serum, AFP level after these hepatotoxins administration increased in propotion to the administered dose in any case, but the extent of increase after carbon tetrachloride or galactosamine was much higher than that after α-naphthylisothiocyanate or ethionine. The extent of increase of serum transaminase activity after carbon tetrachloride or galactosamine was much higher than that after α-maphthylisothiocyanate or ethionine, but the extent of increase of serum bilirubin activity was alrnost the same in any hepatotoxin. It was concluded that the increased production of AFP in these hepatotoxin-treated dogs was closely related to the extent of hepatocellular injnry and that the mechanism of AFP production in the injured liver was activated in the process of liver cell regeneration.
An experimental production of pyometra was carried out with 49 mongrel bitches which belonged to various stages in the luteal phase. These bitches were inoculated E. coli into the uterus with the cervix not ligated. The incidence of so-called canine pyometra was seen in 93.9% as a total. These pyometra could be divided into two types by the histological findings: one showed the pattern with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and the other not with CEH: The type of pyometra with CEH could be seen in a relatively high ratio (80-100%) in the groups from day 1 (the first day of diestrus) to day 20, whereas the type without CEH could be seen in almost all cases in the groups from day 30 to day 40. It was concluded that canine pyometra with CEH which usually was seen in the naturally occurring cases could be easily reproduced by the inoculation of E. coli into the uterus, unlike Dow's experiments, without administration of high doses and for a relatively long period of progesterone, and in the naturally occurring cases, bacterial infection must be one of the most important factors in the course of disease.
Six conventional dogs 3 months old were inoculated with feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). After inoculation, two puppies showed mild depression, anorexia, and pyrexia. One of them showed temporarily vomiting and diarrhea. HI antibody titers of the puppies elevated since 3 days postinoculation (DPI) and the elevation of HI titers was caused by formation of antibodies against both FPLV and CPV. In hematological examination, an insignificant decrease in count of leukocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils was obsreved. No changes were seen at autopsy or histologically. It was conclud that FPLV was infective to cnoventional dogs with mild pathogenicity.
Four fattening steers 9 months old suffered from cerebrocortical necrosis. It showed anorexia, ataxia, nystagmus, bilateral impariment of vision, and mild opisthotonos. Autopsies of 2 animals at the terminal stage revealed translucent yellowish laminar or focal lesions corresponding to the gray matter in transverse sections of the cerebral hemispheres, predominating in the occipital and parietal lobes. Histologically, ischemic changes of neurons with an edematous perineuronal space, looseness of neuropil, and swelling and proliferation of capillary endothelial cells were observed in the gray matter. On the basis of a epizootiological survey, the excessive feeding of high-grain diet before 6 months of age appeared to be associated with the disease.
Seven fattening Japanese black cattle showed lacrimation, exophthalmos, mydriasis, diarrhea, edema and blindness. They exhibited a decrease in nuclear cells and degeneration of optic nerve cells. They presented a low level of serum retinol (19.7±5.7 IU/dl) and extremely small quantities of vitamin A in the liver of two cases. They were given forage containing vitamin A and a small amount of β-carotene. When 25 healthy cattle 13-30 months old were fed the same forage for a long time serum retinol contents decreased with the lapse of time.
In a Japanese Short Horn calf 11 weeks old, the serum concentrations of Mg and Ca were 0.34 and 7.0mg/100ml, respectively. Those of Cl and Pi were within a normal range, but those of Na and K were somewhat under a normal range. The Mg concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(2.1mg/100ml) was within a normal range (2.1-2.4mg/100ml). Thus, the serum/CSF concentration ratio (S/CSF) of Mg (0.16) was much lower than that in a normal range (0.79-1.29). Though the Ca concentration in CSF (4.1mg/100ml) was lower than that in a normal range (5.1-6.3mg/100ml), the S/CSF of Ca was within a normal range because the low Ca concentration in CSF might have resulted from the low Ca concentration in serum. The K and Cl concentrations in CSF were within a normal range, but the Na and iP concentrations were somewhat higher than those of the normal ranges. The S/CSF of Na, K, Cl, and iP of the calf, however, did not show remarkable changes. The present case of the hypomagnesemic neurological syndrome might have been related to the low Ca concentration in CSF.
Nine days after admission to the pasture 21 of 50 growing Cows began to suffer from diarrhea with bloody feces. Oocysts which seemed to be of Eimeria zuernii were detected from the feces. OPG was 3.8×104 in severely affected cows. A diagnosis of bovine caccidiosis was made. Mild and sevree cases were cured with 1-3 dasages and 4-9 dosages of sulfamonomethoxine, sespectively. Gain in body weight was hardly seen in severely affected cows for about a month. It returned to a normal condition in these cows four months after treatment.
In a dog, gentamicin (10mg/kg) was given every 8 hours for 9 days to produce experimental renal failure. Then urinalysis showed an increase in urine volume, a decrease in urinary specific gravirty, proteinuria, glucosuria, celluria and enzymuria. Elevation in the activities of the urinary enzymes preceded a rise in levels of creatinine (Cr) and BUN in the serum. Activities of serum Cr rose by day 10 and of BUN by day 14. Urinary LDH, γ-GTP, NAG and ALP began to rise steadily by day 7 and increased rapidly after that. Urinary LAP rose slightly by day 12 and rapidly after that. Urinary LDH5 increased with a rapid rise of total urinary LDH activity. Renal biopsy specimens on days 5 and 9 were examined histologically, showing granular degeneration of the proximal tubules. Necropsy was made on day 16. The renal lesions were characterized by hydropic degeneration and necrotic changes in the proximal tubules and occasional interstitial infiltration of macrophages. Accordingly, it was suggested that assays of urinary enzymes might be more sensitive indicators of renal damage than conventional renal function tests in the small animal practice.