In a female cat one year of age with spasms in all hands and legs and opisthotonus, tetanus was diagnosed both symptomatologically and immunologically. The cat was administered intramuscularly with procaine penicillin G and kanamycin, orally or intramuscularly with chlorpromazine, and intravenously with ringer's solution. The spastic symptom decreased gradually between 6th and 17th day and disappeared on the 45th day.
Urolithiasis in dairy cows is known as an uncommon disease, and there are no reports on analysis of renal calculi. Recently, however, the occurrence of the disease in cows has been reported. In order to clarify the occurrence and composition of the renal calculi in dairy cows, a total of 166 kidneys (from 83 cows with various diseases in the Tokachi district in Hokkaido) were grossly examined. Renal pelvic calculi collected from them were subjected to infrared spectroscopic and x-ray fluoro-metric analysis. They were found in 144 kidneys (86.7%). In 49% of the cows, calculi were also found in the urinary bladder. The calculi were classified into 5 kinds of stones: silicate (92.0%), phosphate (3.2%), silicate with phosphate (2.4%), phosphate with carbonate (1.6%), and silicate with phosphate and carbonate (0.8%). A majority of silicate stones were from 1mm to 10mm in diameter and composed of pure silica, while the rest contained a low percentage of Mg, P and Ca. Urolithiasis was also recognized in dairy cows, with a high rate of subculinical cases. An early detection of bovine urolithiasis was strongly proposed.
Twelve obese dairy cows were administrated with 50, 000 IU of vitamin A every day from 8 weeks prepartum to 13 weeks postpartum. One week before parturition, body weight was 805.2 kg on the average, showing a tendency to be obese. Plasma glucose level increased at the parturition, decreased thereafter and showed a minimum 4 days postpartum. The level of nonesterified fatty acids and ketone bodies increased from partrition. A high level continued until 2 weeks after calving. Plasma cholesterol, phospholipid and vitamin A concentrations began to decreased 3 weeks prepartum and remained at a low level until 3 weeks postpartum. Vitamin A level in the milk showed 424.4 IU/dl on the average at parturition and then decreased rapidly until one week after calving. It was concluded that cows showing a tendency to be obese before parturition were apt to suffer from an insufficient ingestion of energy after parturition. Then, a low level of vitamin A in plasma in these cows after parturition was considered to be affected with metabolism of retinol-binding protein in the livers as a result of fatty liver caused by mobilization of body fat reserve.
During a period from late 1982 to early 1983, outbreaks of acute diarrhea were observed in swine of all ages throughout Japan. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus and rotavirus were ruled out as the cause by the immunofluorescent and serological examinations performed on specimens from two infected piglets obtained from two farms. The disease was reproduced, and the causative agent was passaged in piglets by oral inoculation with a trypsin-treated emulsion prepared from the small intestine of infected piglets. Numerous coronavirus-like particles were demonstrated by electron microscopy in negatively stained preparations of feces and intestinal contents, as well as in thin sections of the small intestinal mucous membrane from infected animals. Based on the data collected, it was concluded that the present cases should be diagnosed as porcine epidemic diarrhea caused by a coronavirus different from transmissible gastroenteritis virus.
An experiment was conducted in the presence or absence of serum protein. Disinfectants of the chlorine and aldehyde groups had a virucidal effect on bovine enterovirus, bovine herpes virus type 1, bovine rotavirus (3 types), canine adenovirus (3 types), Newcastle disease virus, and vaccinia virus. Disinfectants of the reverse and ampholytic soap groups, chlorophenol group, orthodichlorobenzene-cresol group, and aldehyde group had a destructive effect on RNA and DNA viruses possessing an envelope. Disinfectants of the chlorophenol group, orthodichlorobenzene-cresol group, and aldehyde group had a virucidal effect on some DNA viruses without an envelope. The presence of serum protein exerted great influence upon the virucidal effect of disinfectants of the reverse and ampholytic soap groups.
About 20 small lancetlike flukes were collected in June, 1986, from the bile ducts of a breeding female pig of the LW-breed which had been kept in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. They were identified as Clonorchis sinensis by the morphological features of the worms and eggs. Histopathological findings of the liver were adenomatous proliferation of the epithelial cells of the bile duct, hyperplasia of the bile duct wall, and proliferation of the connective tissues and marked cell infiltration chiefly with eosinophils around the bile ducts. In Miyagi Prefecture, clonorchiasis was prevalent as endemic, but its incidence has not been known in recent years. The present swine infection indicates the distribution and the public health importance of the parasite species in the prefecture.
The development of Sarcocystis miescheriana in pigs was examined in artificially induced infections. Female and castrated 2-month-old Landrace pigs were inoculated with 5000-10000 sporocysts. They were killed on days 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 63 and 100 after inoculation. Cysts in the muscle was histologically examined in addition to the microscopic observation of fresh cysts removed from the muscle. Cysts were first detected in the muscle on day 30. They had a thin wall and many metrocytes. Cysts from days 40 through 100 had a thick and radially striated wall. Bradyzoites could be first found in cysts on day 50. Cysts increased in length until day 63 in proportion to the course of in fection. Afterward, they hardly increased. The cysts increased in width in the course of infection until at least day 100. Cysts became mature about week 9, this being confirmed by shedding of sporocysts from puppies fed the meat of inoculated pigs sacrificed on days 63 and 100.
Two Japanese deer (Cervus nippon) kept at a zoological garden in Shizuoka Prefecture were af-fected with malignant catarrhal fever. They manifested depression, pyrexia, blindness and diarrhea. The gross lesions included ulcers in the palate and rumen, hyperemia in the abomasum and intestine, petechiae in the liver and kidney, and edema of the superficial lymph nodes. Microscopically, vasculitis with necrotic changes in the vascular wall or perivascular infiltration with large to small sized mononuclear cells was observed in the digestive tracts, lung, kidney, liver, brain and lymph nodes. Necrotic epithelial cells were infiltrated with mononuclear cells in the digestive tracts. Large to small sized mononuclear cells proliferated in the lymph nodes. The present malignant catarrhal fever may be the first outbreak in deer in Japan.
Flagellate trophozoites and embryonated nematode eggs were detected from the feces of a squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, kept in Tokushima-shi, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, in June, 1986. The flagellates were identified as Pentatrichomonas hominis from the morphology of the trophozoites in Giemsa-stained smears of feces. The nematodes were identified as Strongyloides sp., probably S. cebus which might be a synonym of S. fuelleborni, from the morphological features of embryonated eggs which passed into feces and worms of each developmental stage obtained by Harada and Mori's fecal culture. These two species of parasites possibly infect human beings, so that they are important from a viewpoint of public health.