Three groups of male Holstein calves were fed for 11 or 12 weeks on different livestock farms. Each group was purchased from a different livestock market and consisted of 10 calves. Body weight, clinical signs and serum protein were periodically evaluated. The electrophoretical patterns and immunoglobulin concentration of serum differed significantly between each group. Two calves of a group that were severely depleted of immunoglobulins died from diarrhoea just after introduction. The survivors in this group were delayed in body weight gain. The proper feeding of colostrum is indispensable to reducing mortality and morbidity following the introduction of dairy bull calves for fattening.
Coccidian oocysts were detected in the vaginal excreta of a Holstein cow, about 2 years old, kept in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The oocysts were identified as those of Eimeria zuernii by their morphological characteristics and sporulation time. The oocysts isolated from the excreta were orally administered, with cattle milk substitutes, to a new-born Holstein male calf in doses of 104 and 560 on day 21 and day 106 after birth respectively. Fecal examinations were performed for oocysts every day from the administration of oocysts to the necropsy on day 108 after administration or day 128 after birth. Pathological examinations revealed no changes in any of the organs possibly affected by coccidian infection, and no protozoan parasites were detected by histopathological examination in the tissues of the digestive tract, eyes and periorbital tissues, and reproductive organs.
The prophylactic efficacy against Dirofilaria immitis infection by monthly ivermectin asdministration was tested in a practice. One hundred and thirty-two uninfected dogs were used in this study. 88 dogs were dosed with 6 to 9μg/kg of ivermectin each month from the beginning of July until December in 1984. 44 dogs were kept as controls. All of them were examinated for microfilariae in the blood with either acetone concentration or filter techniques during May to June in 1985. The prophylactic efficacy of ivermectin was 100%. The control dogs showed a 34.1% infection rate. There were no abnormal findings in any of the treated dogs during the experimental period.
An epizootic of Akabane disease of cattle occurred throughout the Iwate Prefecture. The total number of affected calves was 6, 533 from August in 1985 to June in 1986. This was an incidence rate of 8%. Japanese Shorthorn calves were especially affected with the high incidence rate of 32%. In the present Akabane outbreak abortion was less frequent, without an apparent peak in occurrence. The predominant lesion of the affected calves was hydranencephaly, and arthrogryposis, either by itself or in combination with hydranencephaly, was less frequent.
In June, 1986, a pregnant pig (one of seven breeding pigs on a farm) gave birth to eleven piglets, four of which were still-born. Subsequently, it was found that this sow had been anorexic during pregnancy. Of the seven remaining piglets, three exhibited weakness, emaciation and an awkward gait and all three died before they were fifteen days old. At the autopsy dark red and white spots were found in the lungs, liver, kidneys and lymph nodes. On histopathological examination, nonpyogenic encephalitis, serous catarrhal pneumonia, and characteristic necrotic lesions of the lymph nodes and liver were revealed. Using the enzyme-antibody method (Avidin Biotin Complex method) and the Giemsa stained stamp smears method, Toxoplasma gondii was found in the brain, lungs, liver and lymph nodes. Toxoplasma antibody examination revealed the pig had a titre of 1, 024.
The poultry farm where this disease outbreak occurred had been raising 3, 000 19 day old chicks and 7, 000 12 day old chicks when diagnosticians visited in March 1984. The outbreak was seen in the former group only. Its poultry house was using powdery diatomite as litter, the other sawdust. From 15 days of age onwards the chicks had shown depression, listlessness or collapse and some birds had died. In the course of 5 days 191 chicks (6.3%) died or were killed. A number of organisms of Absidia corymbifera were isolated from the lungs of all chicks examined. Microscopically, the lungs were congested and granulomatous lesions were scattered the secondary and tertiary bronchiolar walls. In the macrophages of the bronchioles deposits of diatomite crystals were recognized. A total of 33 chicks in 3 groups, 7, 14 and 28-day-old, were inoculated with a spore suspension into the bronchus. As a result, granulomatous lesions, which resembled those of the field case, were found at a high rate.
A 3-year-old Thoroughbred mare and a 12-year-old Thoroughbred mare, both showing chronic weight loss and hypoproteinaemia, were examined by macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological methods. In both cases, on macroscopic examination the wall of the entire small intestine was thickened. Microscopically the lamina propria of the small intestine was heavily infiltrated by proliferating epitheloid-type macrophages, giant cells and lymphocytes. The Intestinal villi were shortened and broadened in association with this cell infiltration and proliferation, and the mucosal surface was flattened. On bacteriological examination no significant bacteria were isolated. These cases were diagnosed as Equine granulomatous enteritis by the presence of these characteristic macroscopic and microscopic lesions.
A 2-year-old Shiba dog was referred to the Azabu University Animal Hospital for evaluation of dyspnea, anorexia, and severe cyanosis (especially upon exercise). There was no cardiac murmur detected. Thoracic radiograms revealed slight enlargement of the right ventricle. Electrocardiograms also revealed right ventricular hypertrophy and right axis deviation. Cross sectional echocardiograms showed atrial septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect with overriding aorta and right ventricular hypertrophy, but no pulmonary stenosis. Right to left shunt and severe pulmonary hypertention (about 120mmHg) were demonstrated by angiocardiography and cardiac catheterization. By these findings, this dog was diagnosed as having Eisenmenger syndrome.
A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 95 bitches and 162 queens, that had undergone ovariectomy or ovariohysterectomy at the authors' hospital during the past 9 years (8 years in queens). As a result, it was clearly shown that there was a lower frequency of pyometra (0% in both aminals), and mammary gland tumor (1.6% in bitches, 2.0% in queens) after spaying. A fair proportion of spayed animals showed a tendency to develop obesity, alopecia, cutaneous diseases and urinary incontinence. Especially in 10.9% of bitches and 6.7% of queens, body weight after the operation increased over 1.5 times as much as that before the operation. It was also markedly shown that many owners were dejected because of the impossible desire to have puppies of spayed animals (19.4% in spayed bitchs and 9.4% in queens).