The Bromsulphalein (BSP) liver function test was performed on dairy cows at 1) four weeks before calving, 2) on the day of calving and 3) one or two weeks after calving. The BSP percentage retention at 30 minutes and half-life values were larger at the third test compared to those tests done at times 1. and 2. Those cows which suffered diseases within 100 days after calving delayed their BSP excretion from the blood as compared to healthy cows. Cows which required repeated inseminations before conceiving also exhibited decreased BSP clearance rates. Cows in a lower nutritional status in terms of TDN or DCP requirement at the third test showed a significantly lowered BSP clearance function. The correlation between the BSP clearance test and blood chemical components was observed to be more significant after calving. A negative correlation was observed between the BSP test and total cholesterol, calcium and phospholipids, while a positive correlation was noticed with non-esterified fatty acid. The BSP liver function test after calving showed a significant correlation to the animal's nutritional status and it's blood chemical components and was highly related to disease occurrence and reproductive performance.
Nine foals with angular limb deformities were treated surgically by either screw and wire technique or T-shape periosteal stripping technique. The relative success and complications of each procedure were compared. All the treated defects were corrected in a few months and both techniques were proven to be valid. Using the screw and wire technique, improvement was achieved in two months or less but the mild deviations recurred after removal of the screw and wire in every foal In the T-shape periosteal stripping technique, although the time for correction needed was longer than by the screw and wire technique, the surgical complications were fewer. The T-shape periosteal stripping technique is thought to be superior to the screw and wire technique, because it requires less invasive surgery and the procedure is easier.
A total of 75 isolates of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which had been cultured from 48 slaughter pigs with arthritis and lymphadenitis in Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan between 1985 and 1986, were examined for serotype, pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these isolates, 50 (66.7%) were serotype la, 13 (17.3%) were serotype 2, 8 (10.7%) were serotype 6, and 1 (1.3%) each was serotype 1b, 10, 11 or 21. A pathogenicity test for mice showed that 42 isolates (56.0%) were clinically avirulent, 20 (26.7%) were highly virulent, and 13 (17.3%) were of low virulence. Most isolates of serotype 2 and all isolates of serotypes 6 and 21 were highly virulent whereas most isolates of serotype la were avirulent. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was recovered from the left knee joint of mice inoculated with 33 of 42 (78.6%) avirulent isolates. Mice immunised with live erysipelas vaccine did not die after they were challenged with the highly virulent strains. All of the 60 isolates tested were highly susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and tylosin, but exhibited low susceptibility to oxytetracycline (MIC: 12.5-100μg/ml).
A disease, that was characterized by very early mortality after hatching, occurred in two commercial broiler chicken flocks which were derived from the same breeder flock. Anemia, thymic atrophy, and anemic bone marrow were recognized in affected chicks. Microscopic examination showed lesions which were characterized by lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, and hyperplasia of immature granulocytic series or hypoplasia of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The disease was produced by inoculating liver emulsions prepared from the field cases into SPF one-dayold chicks. An agent was isolated from the livers of chicks infected experimentally and it was identified as chicken anemia agent (CAA). On the basis of these results, the present cases were diagnosed as CAA infection.
Systems for moving pigs from their holding place to the electric stunning space in a slaughter house were investigated in relation to the resultant meat quality. In the restrainer system, pigs got excited and early rigor mortis, which suggested the development of physiologically abnormal meat (PSE and DFD), developed in 4.3% of carcasses. Temperature of the carcasses was higher and the pH decreased rapidly. The quantity of blood which remained in muscles of the carcasses was higher than that obtained when pigs were stunned by striking their forehead while at rest. In the floor conveyor system, pigs were stunned quietly and early rigor mortis developed in only 0.7% of the carcasses. The temperature of these carcasses was relatively low and the pH decreased gradually. The blood quantity in muscles of the carcasses was lower than in the restrainer system. In the revolving round table system, the carcasses showed a lower incidence of early rigor mortis and a smaller quantities of blood in muscles, when compared with the results of the restrainer system. In experimental CO2gas stunning, the muscles relaxed and the blood quantity in the muscles was rather low. However, lactate levels in the blood and muscles were high, and the pH of the carcasses decreased rapidly. On the basis of the results obtained, it was suggested that the floor conveyor system was superior to the restrainer system. The CO2gas stunning system should be investigated further, as it way further enhance the production of good quality meat.
A series of experiments were performed to find the suitable oxygen concentrations for the culture of chicken coccidian oocysts in the laboratory. Chicken faeces with 2.5×105E. acervulinaorE. necatrixoocysts were cultured in Petri-dishes by the static method after being washed three times with tap water by centrifugation and then suspended in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution (10 times the faecal volume). In this case sporulation rates wcre 75.7±7.35% and 52.9±8.45% respectively, but thcy varicd widely with thc nature of faeces and the volume of medium: the greater th e volume of the medium, the higher the sporulation rate. When purified oocysts were cultured, on the other hand, much higher sporulation rates were obtained. When l05/mland 106/mloocysts isolated from faeces were cultured in Petridishes with 2.5%potassium dichromate solution by the static method, sporulation rates were 87.2±2.00% and 49.2±15.55% respectively. From this result, the number of oocysts must be less than 106/ml in static cultures, although the high sporulation rates of 86.2±3.10% and 88.4±3.21% were gained when 106/mlof purified oocysts were cultured by the aerating and the shaking methods respectively. The aerating method, however, was not so suitable for culturing oocysts, because oocyst bubbles were scattered around culture dishes and further excessive aeration resulted in the deformation of sporulated oocysts. Petri-dishes were not suitable as culture containers because the medium containing oocysts was frequently spilled when cultures were moved or removed. Consequently, the cultivation of purified oocysts by the shaking method is the best to gain high sporulation rates and to prevent pollution of the laboratory with oocysts.
A dog with 3rd degree AV block was observed for a long period. Physical examination, blood and biochemical examinations, electrocardiogram, X-ray and ultrasound examinations were performed monthly. We compared examination data before and after the pacemaker implantation. On the blood and biochemical examinations, there were no significant changes. On the electrocardiogram, comparing the first examination with that done 4 month later, the PP interval was not changed but RR interval was extremely prolonged. On preoperative examination, the heart rate was 40 beats/minute, a severe bradycardia. On the echocardiogram, volume load of the left ventricle tended to be increased. However, each parameter of the left ventricle had recovered to normal levels after pacemaker implantation. Ventricular fibrillation suddenly occurred during intubation for anesthesia. We succeeded with resuscitation and continued the procedure for pacemaker implantation. On the seventh day after the operation, each parameter was within normal, levels, which indicated that the heart rate was controlled well by the pacemaker. However, the dog died suddenly on the fourteenth day. On postmortem examination, there were ischemic lesions in the anterior papillary muscles and calcification was observed on the endocardium of both ventricles. These lesions were observed histologically but no cause for their development was apparent.
A follicular centre cell lymphoma found in the abdominal organs of a 6-month-old crossbred hog was observed histologically, immunohistologically and ultrastructurally. The lymphoma showed a diffuse growth pattern with a few scattered follicles containing the neoplastic cells. The cells varied in size and a few of them had massive Russell bodies or intracytoplasmic immunoglobulin. Some neoplastic cells characterized by mitochondrial abundance represented an oncocyte-like appearance.
Pre and post-morten examinations were performed on an emaciated 16 months old Japanese Black cow. These lead to a diagnosis of bovine renal cell carcinoma. Rectal palpation revealed an irregularly lobulated, large mass in the right kidney. Evidence indicating renal failure was obtained from blood examination and urinalysis. Ultrasonographically, the mass consisted of many cysts and parenchymatous tissue with various echo levels. Autopsy revealed a large of mass neoplastic tissue, yellowish or brownish milky in color in the cortical area of the right kidney. Microscopically, the lesion consisted of cells resembling renal epithelial cells. These cells were polymorphic with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and the nucleus was round or oval in shape. The cellular arrangement was irregular in general, and only occasionally a tubular arrangement could be detected. Multistratiform aggregations of the renal epithelial cells, which appear to be a neoplastic transition, were occasionally observed.