Application of bromsulphalein (BSP) fractional clearance test to dairy cows has been studied. Basically, 2 mg of BSP per kg of body weight was injected at a steady rate into the jugular vein of dairy cows and blood samples were collected at short intervals of time for 30 minutes following the injection. BSP was exponentially and inversely eliminated from the blood and the log e of dye concentration was rectilineally related to time after administration. When a dose of BSP was injected within a certain range of body weight (a dose of 1.5 g BSP with body weight ranging from 600-850 kg, 1.0 g: 350-650 kg, 0.5 g: 200-400 kg, 0.3 g: 80-250 kg and 0.2 g: 30-120 kg), the rectilinearity of the data for all of the cows was very good over the general time interval from 5 to 12 minutes, which indicated that the mode of elimination of the dye was adequately expressed by a first-order reaction. Practically, the stable and limited BSP-t/2 value in minutes was calculated from the clearance curve drawn on basis of the semilogarithmic plot of dye concentration and time by sampling above three times (usually three times) during 5 to 12 minutes after the injection. The results of BSP-t/2 value and BSP percent retention (BSP-PR) in cows with acute hepatosis from CCl4 intoxication varied progressively in adequate correlation with the changes of serum enzyme activities regarding liver functions. BSP-t/2 value was significantly correlated with BSP-PR at 20, 30 and 45 minutes after injection with reference to BSP-PR at 45 minutes (PR45)(a correlation coefficient between t/2 values and PR45 values:γ=0.971, P>0.001). In order to investigate the excretion of BSP into urine and milk, two lactating dairy cows were injected intravenously with 2.0 g of BSP. Only 1.22 % of BSP given was excreted in the urine, but no BSP was detected in the milk even after 48 hours.
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of daytime (eight to 17 o'clock) farrowing with prostaglandin F2α analogue (ONO-1052) and oxytocin. Ninety-six sows on Days 111 to 113 of pregnancy were used in these experiments. The sows were treated with 70μg ONO-1052 twice at 20 or 24 hour intervals in Experimant I; 70μg ONO-1052 and an additional 40IU oxytocin either 20 or 24 hours later in Experiment II; 250μg ONO-1052 and an additional 40IU oxytocin either 20 or 24 hours later in Experiment III. The treatments for the farrowing started at eight o'clock in the morning or noon. The forrowings completed in the daytime were 51.7%(15/29) in Experiment I, 46.7%(7/15) in Experiment II, and 76.9%(10/13) in Experiment III. That all the sows (6/6) belonging to the Day 113 group in Experiment III completed their farrowings in the daytime deserves special mention. In conclusion, the ONO-1052/oxytocin treatment in Experiment III was regarded as having considerable potential as a practical method for daytime forrowing, if it was initiated on Day113 of pregnancy.
A Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain for acid-fast bacteria and an immunoenzyme technique using anti-BCG serum were applied to paraffin sections of acid-fast bacterial infections in pigs, cattle and turkey. As for swine mycobacteriosis, a few bacilli were found in some lesions in 3 of 5 cases by ZN stain, while a small amount of BCG-positive material was seen in all cases by immunoenzyme method. In lesions of bovine and turkey tuberculosis, a moderate number of bacilli were detected by ZN stain and reactive products of immunostaining were more frequently observed. In bovine paratuberculosis, there were many ZN-positive bacilli and much more reactive products of immuno-staining. Among non-acid-fast bacteria, Rhodococcus equi was stained with anti-BCG serum, but was gram-positive. The immunoenzvme method using anti-BCG serum may be more useful in detecting acid-fast bacteria than ZN stain.
In September of 1988, nine 7-day-old nursing piglets in a litter of a farm in Niigata Prefecture suddenly showed depression and anorexia. Moreover, two of the nine piglets moved in circles in one derection with frothy fluid. One of the two died and another was dying on that day. After 3 days, their dam died without clinical sign. Those two piglets and their dam were examined. On autopsy, the three pigs had similar lesions. A large mount of straw colored fluid and fibrin were present in their peritoneal cavity. Histopathologically, suppurative fibrious serositis was observed. No viruses were isolated. Pasteurella multocida (Pm) serotype A: 3·4 was isolated in pure culture from their hearts, lungs, livers, spleens, kidneys and brains. The disease was diagnosed as suppurative fibrious serositis caused by infection with serotype A: 3·4 strain of Pm. The median lethal does (LD50) of the isolate in mice was 101.2 colony-forming units. An indirect hemagglutination test demonstrated the antibody against the Pm isolate in 177 (97.3%) of 182 pigs on the farm where the outbreak occurred and in 298 (82.8%) of 360 pigs on the 67 other farms of Niigata Prefecture. The antibody titers ranged from 4 to 256 on the former farm and from 4 to 64 on the latter.
Immunogenicity of the cell culture-adapted RC·EHL strain of rabies·Evirus, as well as the efficacy and administration method of an inactivated vaccine prepared from this strain were investigated. The cross-neutralization test revealed that anti-RC·EHL, anti-CVS and anti-HF-TC sera neutralized the respective homologous viruses with the highest titer, and that anti-RC·EHL serum neutralized the CVS strain with a higher titer than the HF-TC strain. The minimum effective neutralizing antibody titers, which were determined in dogs injected with the experimental vaccine, were 11.3 when assayed with the RC·EHL strain and approximately 4 when assayed with the HF-TC strain. The minimum effective neutralizing antibody titers determined in guinea pigs were higher to some extent than those in dogs. These results were comfirmed by the passive immunization test performed in guinea pigs. There were no significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers measured at 2 or 4 weeks post-inoculation (PI) when dogs or cats were vaccinated subcutaneouly with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml, subcutaneously and intramuscularly with 1.0 ml, or subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of undiluted and 2-, 4-, or 8-fold diluted vaccine. Dogs inoculated subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of the vaccine produced a neutralizind antibody titer of 29.3 at 1-month PI, when assayed with the HF-TC strain, then the titer gradually declined to 5.4 at 12-month PI. Dogs inoculated twice with the vaccine at a 1-, 6-or 12-month interval developed the maximum neutralizing antibody titers of 313.3, 368.1 or 340.3, respectively, whereas dogs inoculated twice with the vaccine at a 24-month interval did not produce any amnestic immune response. These results indicated that the inactivated vaccine prepared from the RC·EHL strain induced immunity lasting for 12 months and elicited a high amnestic immune response by re-vaccination within 12 months of the first vaccination.
The presence of Yersinia enterocolitica was examined in 180 healthy swine slaughtered at 0 abattoir of Saitama Prefecture. The detection rate of Y. enterocolitica serotype 03 from the intestinal contents was 12.2%, whereas that from the carcasses was 7.8%. From the carcasses, Y. enterocolitica other than serotype 03 and the other Yersinia sp., probably derived from the environment, were detected more frequently than the intestinal contents. The serotype 03 organism was isolated from the intestinal contents of 18 swine, from both intestinal contents and carcasses of 5 animals, and from only the carcasses of 11 animals. On the basis of the above findings, it is suggested that the contamination of the carcasses with the organism at abattoir is caused not only by the intestinal contents but also by environmental factors such as machines and instruments.
Porcine toxoplasmosis broke out concurrently on five farms within the jurisdiction of the Chusei Livestock Hygiene Service Center, Mie Prefecture, from November 1987 to January 1988. As the result of an investigation, feed supplements given before onset of the disease were suspected as the source of infection. When the same feed supplements were given experimentally to 3 pigs, toxoplasmosis was reproducable. These results suggest that the feed provided had been contaminated with toxoplasma oocysts, resuling in the occurrence of disease.