The purpose of the report first is to set the standard values of blood composition and to examine the effects of the stages of lactation, age region and milk performance for 1, 247 dairy cows in Hokkaido, which would be the criteria for judging metabolic profile tests. Blood analyses were performed for PCV, Albumin, BUN, Glucose, FFA, Ca, Pi, Mg, K, GOT and Cholesterol. The levels of FFA and Cholesterol varied with stages of lactation, and the variation of BUN largery depended on regions. Next, a total of 70 profile tests were carried out in 26 herds. Herds with a high incidence of production diseases had many metabolities outside of 1.3 SD of the standard values.In blood compositions, BUN reflected short-term protein intake. Low level of PCV and Albumin was indicative of a longstanding low protein status. Glucose and FFA reflected energy intake, and FFA was more sensitive than Glucose as an indication of energy status. Low level of Pi or Mg was concerned with incidence of milk fever or infertility. GOT and Cholesterol were not concerned with incidence of production diseases.
A survey of leptospira antibodies against eight serovars, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, autumnalis, hebdomadis, australis, pyrogenes, pomona and hardjo, was performed on dogs accommodated in the four facilities for stray dogs in Kagoshima Prefecture from May 1984 to March 1987. The incidence of positive reaction tended to be higher in males than in females and in older dogs than in younger dogs. Out of 806 dogs surveyed, 190 (23.5%) were positive to one or more leptospiral serovar. The incidence of sero-positive dogs was 57 of 204 (27.9%) in Kaseda, 53 of 197 (26.9%) in Miyanojo, 44 of 198 (22.2%) in Kokubu and 36 of 207 (17.4%) in Kagoshima city. The occurrence of leptospirosis did not seem to be related to the season. The incidence of positive reaction to leptospira was highest in serovar icterohaemorrhagiae throughout the four areas, and next in serovar canicola in Kagoshima city and Kokubu, and in serovar hebdomadis in Kaseda and Miyanojo. Although serovar australis, pyrogenes, pomona and hardjo had not been obtained in the previous survey of the southern part of Kyusyu district during 1972-1979, they were detected in this survey. All dogs examined were clinically normal, with or without antibody. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values in positive dogs were statistically higher within the normal range than those in negative dogs (P<0.05).
In Auguts, 1987, on a large-scale raising farm of Japanese Black beef cattle, a herd of 9-monthold calves were introduced. About 10 days later, an outbreak of respiratory disease was observed, and three cattle died while four were eliminated. One dead and 10 affected cattle were submitted to bacteriological and pathological (ABC method) examinations, and P. haemolytica was significantly isolated from them. High antibody titers to the organism in blood were also observed. Although neither Micoplasma nor pathogenic viruses were isolated, a significant increase in antibody titer to bovine RS virus was observed. This respiratory disease was diagnosed as P. haemolytica infection, which was considered to be an opportunistic infection. The causative factors were pursued and acounterplan to stress, hygienic problems, and pathogenic microbes was established. As the result of the execution of this plan, no further outbreak was observed.
We had investigated calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD·EMD) virus including pathogenesis and epidemiology from field cases. Among the apparently healthy dairy heifers in Ishikari area, we had detected 0.5%(1/224) persistent infection with non-cytopathic BVD·MD virus. Other cases with diarrhea and respiratory signs showed that 57.1%(8/14) of these were viremic with noncyopathic BVD·MD virus and five cases proved to be persistent infection. Of these eight cases, two were diagnosed as acute type and six were diagnosed chronic type of mucosal disease. All eight cases died from nine to 27 months of age. On a farm recongized as having persistent infection, epidemiological investigation within the past 5 years showed a vicious cycle of abortion-persistent infection-mucosal disease-abortion-persistent infection. The period of frequent occurrence of abortion was identified with the early stage of the fetuses which were proved persistent infections. Results of serum neutralization test using the isolated eight strains of virus with rabbit hyperimmuned sera (anti No.12, anti Nose, anti Tokachi) and sera of animals from two farms recognized persistent infection showed that the prevalent strain on the farms differed considerably from the hitherto known strains.
We made a survey of biting midges in Aomori Prefecture, mainly in the Mutsu area between 1986 and 1987, resulting in the confirmation of 16 classified and four unclassified types.In the Mutsu area, as many as 14-20 species were identified.In terms of distribution of biting midges in Aomori Prefecture, old-northern species in common with those in Europe and in Siberia were observed in large number.However, the species and the number of midges varied depending on the site of collection.To roughly classify the predominant species of biting midges by area, C. sinanoensis, C.sanguisuga, and C.maculatus were predominant in Tsugaru and Sanpachi areas (Aomori, Hirosaki, Kizukuri and Hachinohe), while C. punctatus and C. erairai were predominant in Shimokita area (Mutsu).In Kamitosan area, the distribution seemed to be in-between that of both divisions. The data obtained from the 2-year continuous survey in Higashidori-mura and Ohma-machi were totalized and analyzed in order to evaluate the correlation between the number of biting midges and the temperature.As the result, in six species of biting midges including C.punctatus, significant positive correlation was observed at the risk ratio of 1 or 5%, and this analysis made it possible to estimate the temperature at the time of appearance of biting midges. And, it was estimated that biting midges appear at the mean temperature 16-17°C, the maximal temperature 19-20°C, and the minimal temperature 13-14°C.Furthermore, the appearance period was estimated from the temperature for the time of appearance, and C.punctatus gave the longest period of appearance, from mid or late June to late September or early October, while the others appeared between mid June and mid or late September.These results were in general agreement with the findings obtained from actual collection of biting midges.
A 4-year-old male, German Shepherd dog showed staggering gait and hyperesthesia in his hip, and was euthanatized for pathological examination. Main macroscopical findings were bilateral, endo-and periosteal hyperostosis at the diaphysis of the humerus, radius, ulna, and femur. Histologically, a multicentric proliferation of cancellous osteoid or immature bone of various density was observed at the diaphysis of the bones. The foci frequently fused to each other and showed osteoclastic bone absorption. Significant changes other than the osseous lesions were swelling of chief cells of the parathyroid gland and c-cells of the thyroid gland, and visceral and cerebral lesions attributable to Dirofilaria immitis infection. The diagnosis of canine panosteitis of delayed onset was made based on the pathological and clinical findings.
A 5-year-old male mongrel dog with dyspnea had respiratory tract stenosis due to tumors in the laryngopharynx and the left retropharyngeal lymph node. After surgical excision of the tumors, the dog showed normal respiration. However, tumor recurrence was seen in the pharyngeal area at 7 and 11 months later, and the dog died from respiratory failure after the third excision. Histologically, tumor cells with vesicular nuclei and slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm formed nests of various sizes. Mitotic figures were present in some areas. Furthermore, the tumor cells had argyrophilic granules which were stained by the Grimelius' method. The lesion in the left retropharyngeal lymph node was similar to that in the laryngopharynx. From these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as malignant chemodectoma arising from the left carotid body or glomus jugulare. In this case, it was suggested that tumor cells infiltrated and/or metastasized to the laryngopharynx, formed tumor masses occupying the oral cavity and caused disturbances of respiration and deglutition.