Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test on canine neutrophils was studied by a slightly nodified Gifford's method. Though percentage of positive cells was evaluated in the original method, the authors classified each cell on the basis of formazan deposit pattern and calculated a score. The NBT test result was evaluated by positive cell percentage with score. In endotoxin stimulated NBT test, the score was remarkably elevated as compared with positive cell percentage. These results suggested that the NBT test may be indicative of reduction capacity of neutrophils when indicated by positive cell percentage as well as the scores. Normal canine neutrophils showed a mean positive rate of 68.7% and a mean score of 217.8 in resting NBT test, 78.7% mean positive rate and 281.4 mean score in 50 μg/ml endotoxin stimulated NBT test, and 81.3% mean positive rate and 346.6 mean score in 100μg/ml endotoxin stimulated NBT test.
The composition of long-chain fatty acids in the rumen was investigated in cows reared on different types of feed in open fields. Feed consumption caused a decrease in stearic acid (C18), a saturated fatty acid, and an increase in oleic acid (C18=1) and linoleic acid (C18=2), unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acid concentration was predominantly increased at three hours after feeding, and continued until the next feeding. Durig the fasting period, there were a marked decrease in C18 and an increase in C18=1 and C18=2. An increase in C18=2 was observed in the cattle groups with frequent onsets of digestive tract disorders reared on high and lowenergy feeds. C18=2 was not increased in the group fed a balanced feed or in the group grazed on green grass alone. A marked increase in C18=2 was found in some of the cattle with displacement of the abomasum.
The present study dealt with the clinical effects of large doses of progesterone (Luteogen, progesterone in oil, Sankyo Zoki Co., Tokyo, and Luteum Depot for veterinary use, 17αC-hydroxy-progesterone caproate and progesterone in the ratio of 10 to 1 in oil, TEIKOKU HORMONE Mfg., Co., Tokyo) on prevention of sporadic abortion in 58 cows and also assessed the side effects of large doses of progesterone in 32 normal pregnant cows. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Three cows showing clinical signs suggestive of abortion received 500 mg progesterone four times and 220 mg-330 mg Luteum Depot 22 times, while three other cows showing the same signs received 250mg progesterone four timesand 330mg-550mg Luteum Depot 12 times. In these six cows, pregnancy was maintained and all cows delivered normal calves. 2. Normal calves were obtained in 44 of 52 cows with clinical signs suggestive of abortion, when they received 550mg of Luteum Depot 3-5 times every 13-19 days. 3. Progesterone secretion was not suppressed in 32 normal pregnant cows by the injection of 550mg Luteum Depot. The findings suggested that a treatment with large doses of long acting progesterone may prevent the sporadic abortion and that the administration of large doses of this hormone did not suppress the progesterone secretion.
Two hundred and thirty-five, 4-week-old broilers died suddenly on a poultry farm raising 19, 500 briler chicks. The main clinical signs of broilers submitted for diagnosis were depression, anemia, and labored breathing. Pathological examinations revealed necrotic enteritis with fibrinous exudate in the duodenum and the first half of the jejunum, purulent pneumonia in the lungs, centrilobular coagulative necrosis and hemosiderin deposition in the liver, as well as necrotic foci and fibrinous exudate in perifollicular and periellipsoidal regions of the spleen. No coccidial infection could be detected in any of the affected chicks. Immunerable Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the lung, heart, liver, spleen and small intestine of the affected chickens examined. E. coli was also isolated at high rates from these same organs. Based on these findings, the present cases were diagnosed as a dual infection of C. perfringens and E. coli.
Effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K99-Specific monoclonal antibody (MCA) to neonatal calves was evaluated experimentally in 27 colostrum-deprived Holstein calves. Calves were challenged orally by ETEC-K99 strain B44 2 hours after oral administration of various doses of MCA. The MCA was not able to prevent diarrhea, but a dose response was noted between administrated herds. Also the grade of diarrhea, the incidence of clinical dehydration and clinical depression decreased in MCA treated groups compared with the control group which did not receive MCA. The mortality rate was also significantly lower (P<0.05) in the treated groups compared with controls.
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on 16 healthy pigs using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. The total number of cells recovered by BAL was 6.5±1.89×107, consisting of macrophages (83.6±8.7%) and lymphocytes (14.8±8.3%). However, the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils were negligible. The yeast particle phagocytic rate and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction activity in BAL cells were 72.8±8.1% and 0.051±0.028 respectively. The yeast particle phagocytic rate in BAL cells as well as the total number and type of cells recovered were not affected by BAL repeated every two days. However, NBT reduction activity in BAL cells was significantly increased after the 3rd treatment with BAL.
A Congenital anomaly of the portal vein characterized by the clinical sign of ascites was diagnosed in a dog with a marked increase in blood ammonia (490μg/dl) and BSP retention (51.4%). Total serum protein value was within normal limits. Neither sodium accumulation nor hypoalbuminemia was found; nor were ammonium biurate crystals found in the urine. Angiographically, anastomosis of the portal vein with the azygous vein and retrograde flow from the portal vein to the gastric vein were detected. At necropsy, the latter was confirmed to be of gastroesophageal collateral origin carrying blood from the portal vein not into the liver but into the azygous vein. In this study, it was suspected that congenital absence of a hepatoportal system led to the development of acquired gastroesophageal collaterals and ascites originating from the marked portal hypertension.