Efficacy of a carbamate insecticide, propoxur, was examined against fleas on domestic cats. Propoxur dissolved in methanol was dropped in amounts of 10μg, 50μg, 100μg, 200μg, and 400μg on pieces of round filter paper placed on the bottom of petri dishes, 9cm in diameter and 7cm high. After methanol evaporated, five Ctenocephalides felis collected from cats were put into each dish to execute knock down tests. The knock down test was repeated four times, and the number of knocked down fleas was different among the tests with different sources of fleas. However, the efficacy of propoxur was observed in doserelation in each test and excellent insecticidal activity of the compound was confirmed. Subsequently, clinical evaluation of three propoxur formulations, 1% powder, 0.1% shampoo, and 9.4% collar, was carried out on five cats each infested with C. felis. The three products thoroughly exterminated the fleas with characteristics of each formulation from all the cats treated. That is, efficacy of the powder and the shampoo was very quick, but not residual; whereas the collar produced a very residual effect to prevent flea infestations during the observation period of one month, although it was not able to eliminate all the fleas immediately after application. None of the three products showed any adverse effects. It is thus considered that propoxur has excellent insecticidal activity against C. fells on cats, and the products of powder, shampoo, and collar can be clinically applied.
The present studies were conducted to gain further knowledge regarding the relationship between crystal forms of bovine uterocervical mucus and ovarian function. The properties of uterocervical mucus have been regarded accurately as reflecting the vicissitudes of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the follicular and luteal periods. A crystallization phenomenon in a normal sexual cycle is characterized by specific patterns. The patterns are characteristic of each phase of the ovarian cycle. In ovarian dysfunction, however, such patterns remain mostly obscure. The pattern of mucus crystallization varies with delicate quantitative fluctuations of these hormones not only in the estrous and nonestrous periods but also during the transitional periods from P-dominant to E-dominant and from E-dominant to P-dominant phases. In this study, changes in crystallization patterns as a reflection of subtle quantitative fluctuations of E and P were investigated in detail. The results verified that the crystallization of uterocervical mucus can be effectively used for the diagnosis of ovarian function in cows.
Effects of synthetic gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH; Buserelin) on ovulation and fertility in mares during their breeding season (from March to May) were examined. Eighty-nine mares of several breeds were treated with 0, 10, 20, or 40, μg Buserelin after detection of estrus by regular stallion teasing. Ovulation was checked by palpation of the ovaries via the rectum. The following results were obtained: 1) Among the doses of 10, 20 and 40μg Buserelin, there was no significant difference in the effect of Buserelin on the day of ovulation or the number of matings for successful pregnancy after the Buserelin treatment in 25 draft mares. 2) In Thoroughbred mares, ovulation after Gn-RH treatment occurred earlier than in controls (2.7 vs 3.3 days, P<0.05) and the number of matings for successful pregnacy after Gn-RH treatment decreased significanly (1.0 vs 1.2 times). 3) In four persistent estrous mares, ovulation occurred within four days after injection with 20μg Buserelin and three of these four mares became pregnant after a single mating. These results suggest that administration of 20μg Buserelin to mares may improve their conception rates.
Sera collected from approximately 1, 300 pigs in 20 prefectures from 1976 to 1987 in Japan were examined for virus neutralization antibody (VNAb) against porcine reovirus types 1, 2 and 3. The positive rates of VNAb against type 1 in 1-and 2-month-old pigs were 60.2 and 15.4%, respectively. Afterwards, the rate was raised to 65.3% in 3-month-old and a level higher than 85% was maintained during 4-6 months of age. The positive rates of VNAb against types 2 and 3 were generally lower than that of type 1, however, these rates changed approximately parallel to that of type 1. These results suggested that the pigs were infected with these types of reovirus at about 2 months of age. On the other hand, chronologically, the positive rates of VNAb against types 1, 2 and 3 of the virus in pigs that had been raised from 1976 to 1987 ranged 64.3-99.0%(geometric mean (GM): 89.3%), 15.0-72.7%(GM: 44.0%) and 20.0-70.6%(GM: 50.3%), respectively. There was a few difference in positive rates between each observation period. Furthermore, it was revealed that the pigs raised in various districts of Japan had higher rates of VNAb against type 1 (75.8-98.0%) than those against types 2 and 3 (30.3-68.9%). From these findings it was considered that porcine reovirus has widely spread among pigs in Japan since 1976.
Dairy herd improvement data from the total number of 513 Holstein cows were investigated statistically to determine whether hot climate or/and coat color might relate to the reproductive performance after parturition. The cows calving in July required more services per conception than in April. The cows calved in August showed more days from calving to conception than in April and May. The mean period from calving to conception was shorter in white cows than in black cows which calved in July. In conclusion, the hot climate may cause a lengthening of the calving to conception period in dairy cows, especially in black cows.
In an 8-year-old male Rough Collie, a persistant swelling had been first recognized in the front part of the right shoulder about 15 months before death. The affected part quickly enlarged during two months before the animal was sacrificed. At necropsy a neoplasm, 22×17×14cm in size, was found under the clavicular muscle. It was diagnosed microscopically was hemangiosarcoma. The tumor was accompanied by extensive necrosis, multiple thrombi and severe hemorrhage. No metastasis as detected in any of the other organs or tissues examined.
Four cases of canine paragonimiasis, accompanied by a main symptom of bad cough, were detected in Kami-ukena-gun, Ehime Prefecture in 1975-1978. Eggs excreted into the feces were ovoidal or elliptical in shape and measured approximately 75μm in length and 45μm in width. The maximum width was measured at the middle portion in many of the eggs. The operculum was approximately 4μm long and 20μm wide. The egg shell measured about 1μm in thickness and no thickening or processes were present in the shell on the opposite side of the operculum. The eggs were identified by their morphological features as those of Paragonimus miyazakii and it was considered that P. miyazakii infection of dogs was prevalent in this area. By oral administration of bithionol in a dose of 50mg/kg once or 25mg/kg twice a day for 5 consecutive days, the clinical signs and the excretion of eggs into the feces disappeared in all four cases. The autopsy of one of the four dogs, six years after chemotherapy, revealed no gross lesions in the lungs.