Feces of 23 cattle with wartery or muco-hemorragic diarrhoea from 3 dairy and 1 beef farms were examined bacteriologically and virologically, and their sera were tested serologically. As a result, 103 to 105 CFU/g of feces of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus (C. f fetus) were isolated from7 cattle on 4 farms. Enterotixigenic Escherihia coli, Salmonell spp., and Clostridium perfringens were not isolated from thesespecimens. There were some cattle on 2 dairy farms which showed significant variationsof serum agglutination titer against C. f. fetus, five weeks after the onset. Cattle on 2 of 3 dairy farms also had a significant increase of haemagglutination inhibition titer to bovine coronavirus. From 2 of 3 beef cattle with diarrhoea, C. jejuni and C. coli were also isolated besides C. f. fetus. On the other hand, C. f fetus was not isolated from the rectal feces of 50 normal cattle on 12 dairy farms.
During the period from February to June, 1989, an attempt was made to isolate mycoplasmas from milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis which were negativein bacterial cultivation. Mycoplasma bovis (M.bovis) was isolated from 2 of 74 milk samples. A modified CMT (PLT) was performed with milk samples from cows on T-Farm where M.bovis mastitis occurred. Then isolation of mycoplasma was attempted with milk samples positive for PLT. As a result, M.bovis was purely isolated from 1 of 13 milk samples. In two cases in which M.bovis was isolated, the clinical signs were comparatively slight.They were not affected with clinically apparent pneumonia or arthritis. The time of occurrence of these mastitis coincided with an increase in the number of cows with mastitic and somatic cell counts of bulk milk on T-Farm in 1988.
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were made on three calves (2 to 73 days of age, males) with clinical signs of central nervous system (CNS) disorder. Two normal newborn calves (1 male and 1 female) were used as a control until 9 weeks of age. Histopathologic ally, hydranencephaly was observed in two calves, and aplasia of the left cerebral hemisphere was in one calf. One of the EEGs in the calves with hydranencephaly showed an almost complete absence of activity in all leads or amplitude depression in the bilateral hemisphere. The other showed low amplitude fast activity in both awake and asleep states. The EEG patterns in the calveswith hydranencephaly were consistent in each unipolar leads. The EEG in the calfwith aplasia of the left cerebral hemisphere showed amplitude depression in leftoccipital area. These findings suggest the usefulness of EEG examinations in making diagnosis on animals with signs of CNS disorder.
Foot lesions of young stored pigs detected macroscopically were investigated using hard and soft X-ray machines to study internal pathologic changes. Macroscopic findings: Lesions were observed in 83 of the 1, 400 feet examined (5.9%). Among them, 28 had “five common lesions”(heel, sole and toe erosions, white-line lesion, and false sand-crack), and 32 had disparity of claw size. Theothers were 7 “bush-foot”, 5 fetlock joint lesions, 2 overgrowth claws and 9 accessary claw lesions (5 “thimbling”, 2 swelling and 2 polyductyly). X-ray findings: 34 of 83 feet (41.0%) with macroscopical lesions showed internal pathologic changes upon radiographic examination. Malformations such as dysostosis and polydactyly were visualized in 22 of 34 feet (61.1%). In the other 12 feet, extremely severe changes such as periosteitis of the phalanx or suppurative arthritis were visualized. However, in all of 28 feet with “five common lesions”, no abnormal bone architecture was detected radiographically.
In 1985 we reported the pregnancy rate of frozen embryo transfer by the method of two-step glycerol dilution with 0.6 M sucrose solution and BMOC-3 medium in a straw. The present experiment was carried out to estimate this method in field trials. During the period from April, 1986 to March, 1989, 145 frozen-thawed embryos in total were produced from 25 donors by the method of two-step glycerol dilution in a straw and transferred to 145 recipients by 22 technicians in threedistricts of Hyogo Prefecture. Pregnancy rates were 55.3%(26/47) in district A, 34.4%(22/64) in district B and 35.3%(12/34) in district C, respectively. The technicians who transferred embryos to over 10 cows accounted for 66.7% in district A, which was larger than both 18.2% in district B and 12.5% in district C. When low quality embryos were transferred at the district with the lowest pregnancy rate, the pregnancy rate was higher in the embryos thawed in 0.6 M sucrose with isotonic salt concentration than in hypotonic 2/3 salt concentration. Freezing damage occurred in the embryos graded as fair quality before freezing was examined morphologically at thawing, and after culture for a few hours. Freezing damage was less in the embryos thawed in 0.6 M sucrose with isotonic 3/3 salt concentration than hypotonic solution. The result obtained at the present field trials suggested that the two-step glycerol dilution method is applicable to thefield work of embryo transfer without decreasing the pregnancy rate.
Growth agglutination (GA) has been used for detecting the antibodies to swine erysipelas. However, it often takes much time to judge, with additional inconveniences entailed using live cells from the Marienfelde strain, a virulent strain of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. In this experiment, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of the antibodies and examination for several kinds of cell components antigens. Three antigens with highly specific reactivity in ELISA were selected for measuring the antibodies to E. rhusiopathiae. They were ultrasonicated antigen, EDTA treated antigen and alkaline extracted antigen. Each antigen showed the cut-off absorbency for positive serum, which was the mean absorbency of antibody negative sera, and three times the standard deviation. The values are 0.419 in ultrasonicated antigen, 0.337 in EDTA treated antigen and 0.693 in alkaline extracted antigen, respectively. Ultrasonicated antigen and EDTA treated antigen had a definite correlation between ELISA antibody and GA antibody titers. These result suggest that the ultrasonicated antigen is useful for detecting the antibodies to swine erysipelas.
Primary adenocarcinoma of the small intestine in a cow was presented. Clinical diagnosis was generalized emaciation associated with epicarditis and peritonitis.At the laparotomy, diffuse tumor of the jejunum and disseminated metastatic nodules of the peritoneum were found with ascites. Histological examination of the tumor revealed well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma originating from the mucosa of the jejunum. Its metastases were observed in the liver, lungs and pleura. In addition to this case, four cases of similar tumors were reviewed in the literature.