Seven hundred sixty sera collected from fattening and breeding pigs aged 4 months or over in 17 prefectures in 1976, 1982, and from 1986 to 1989 were tested forvirus neutralizing antibody (VNAb) against porcine adenovirus (PAV) type 1 (25R strain), type 2 (A47 strain), type 3 (6618 strain), type 4 (Mtinchen strain) and HNF70 strain (type 5). In calender years, the positive rates of VNAb against types 1, 2, 3, 4, and HNF70 strain were 12.6-49.3%(geometric mean: 43.1%), 52.5-66.7%(63.7%), 51.3-93.3%(70.9%), 0-43.8%(27.1%) and 75.0-95.0%(87.1%), respectively. The positive rates of VNAb against types 1, 2, 3, 4 and HNF70 strain of PAV in each prefecture were shown to be about similar in value in the same district. These findings suggested strong transmission of PAV in pigs. The positiverate of VNAb against the HNF70 strain for sera from the 7 districts of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Koshinetsu, Kinki, Kyusyu and Okinawa were above 80%. The positive rate of VNAb over 80% of type 3 was shown in the districts of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Chubu, Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyusyu, type 2 in the districts of Chubu and Kinki, and type 1 in the Chubu district. A positive rate of over 80% of VNAb against type 4 was not found in any district. From these findings it was proven that various types of PAV have widely infected pigs in Japan.
Serum selenium (Se) levels and blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in pregnant ewes, to which sodium selenite (as E-Se contained tocopherol) or seleno-L-methionine was injected intramuscularly with Se of 0.1 mg/kg body weight at 2-week intervals one month prior to parturition, were examined. Serum Se levels increased markedly after administration of Se, and blood GSH-Px activities, showing significantly higher levels in ewes injected with selenomethionine, increased gradually after 2 weeks. Serum Se levels and blood GSH-Px activities in the lambs born to these ewes were high, especially in lambs administered with selenomethionine. Nonetheless red blood cell and serum tocopherol levels in ewes and newborn lambs showed no difference in each group. Se concentrations in the milk of ewes injected with Se were high especially in the ewes with selenomethionine. It was concluded that selenomethionine was more utilizable in GSH-Px and passable through the placenta than sodium selenite.
In April 1988, a 151-days-old calf on a dairy farm was abandoned due to chronic diarrhea and emaciation, Trichuris eggs were found 1, 000 eggs per gram (EPG) upon fecal examination. Large numbers of Trichuris sp. worms were observed in the cecum and colon by autopsy. There were 45 worms per 5 cm2 cecum. The colonic wall was thickened and some tubers were observed on the mucosa. Histologically, edema of the lamina propria, Trichuris worms in the submucosa, epithelical desquamation and cell infiltrationwere observed in the mucosa. These findings suggested that this chronic diarrhea should be owed to parasitism of Trichuris sp. In the survey of 79 calves on 21 farms Trichuris eggs were observed in 22 calves on 8 farms. The EPG ranged from 1 to 1, 647 by the suger centrifugal-flotation technique. Three calves having large numbers of eggs (1, 647 ; 577 ; 196) showed diarrhea or soft feces. High egg reduction was observed in the calves treated with Ivermectin, whereas, a slight reduction was recognized in the calves treated with Negvon.
Surgical management of fifty calves with umbilical infections was reported. The umbilical infections were classified into extra-abdominal umbilical infections and intra-abdominal umbilical cord remnant infections. The former were divided into umbilical abscess, chronic omphalitis and umbilical hernia with abscess or omphalitis. The latter were divided into urachal infection localized along the urachus or extending to the urinary bladder, omphaloarterial abscess, omphalophlebitis localized along the umbilical vein or communicated with the liver, and both urachus and umbilical vein infections. Although only 5 of 14 calves with omphalophlebitis that communicated with the liver recovered, all other calves recovered without any postoperative complications. In addition to deep abdominal palpation, positive contrast radiography and ultrasonography were able to diagnose infection involving the intra-abdominal umbilical cord remnants and the abdominal organs. In controlling the infection before surgery by isolating micro organisms, surgical removal of the infectious structures by ventral celiotomy was concluded to be effective in succsesful treatment of these cases, except in umbilical abscesses which responded only to drainage. Eary diagnosis of liver infection associated with omphalophlebitis and its treatment need further investigation.
An electroencephalographie (EEG) study was carried out on two male calves of Japanese Black Cattle aged 3 and 53 days. The calves were suspected to have a central nervous system (CNS) disorder according to clinical signs. Histopathologic diagnoses were made for internal hydrocephal us and porencephaly in one of the calves, and for mild internal hydrocephalus with thin white matter in the other. The EEG showed diffuse high voltage slow activity with a decrease of superimposed low voltage fast activity, so this pattern was considered to be characteristic of hydrocephalus. Furthermore, focal abnormalities of the EEG were observed onexamination of the site of lesions including porencephaly and the thin white matter. The EEG patterns differed according to the lesion. These focally observed atypical EEG swere considered to be due to the lesions which coexisted with hydrocephalus. Based on the results described here, the EEG was considered to be auseful diagnostic aid for screening tests in cases of suspected hydrocephalus incalves.
A Holstein dairy cow suffering from lymphosarcoma was diagnosed electrocardiographically as atrial fibrillation. In the pathological examination, tumor cells have invaded both atria diffusely. The leukemic infiltration laid immediately adjacent to and surrounded the sinoatrial (SA) node, but did not involve the node. Onset of atrial fibrillation in this case was considered to be associated with the SA node which was isolated from myocardial fibers of the right atrium by the lesions.
The migration route of the diploid type of Paragonimus westermani in catswas examined. Twenty-seven cats were each inoculated orally with 20 metacercariae of this lung fluke and bled to death under anesthesia at various intervals, from 1 hr to 245 days, after inoculation. The recovery rate of the flukes averaged60.9% of the inoculated metacercariae. The location of the flukes recovered was as follows: the intestinal wall at 1 to 6 hrs, skeletal muscles at 1 to 21 days, pleural cavity at 28 days, and lungs at 35 days or later after inoculation. It was suggested that the flukes excysted in the intestinal lumen, migrated to the skeletal muscles through the intestinal wall and peritoneal cavity, lodged in themuscles, and then migrated to the lungs through the peritoneal and pleural cavities. In the lungs, the flukes were first found at 28 days after inoculation and almost all flukes detected were located there at 49 days or later after inoculation. The eggs appeared for the first time in the feces 55 to 79 days (66 days onaverage) after inoculation. Therefore staying in the lungs for about 30 days seemed to be necessary for flukes to reach sexual maturity and to discharge eggs.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to the detection of antibodies to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and ELISA values were compared with growth agglutination (GA) titers. Ultrasonicated antigen of E. rhusiopathiae strain ‘Agata’ s(serovar: 5) was used as ELISA antigen. GA test was done by using live cells of E. rhusiopathiae strain ‘Marienfelde’ (serovar: la). As compared ELISA values with GA titers of 121 swine sera, the ELISA values had a high correlation with GA titers. The sera of piglets of the same litter were tested by ELISA at 30 to 90 days of age. Maternal antibody titers of piglets of the same litter varied greatly and antibodies were not detected in the sera of piglets at more than 50 days of age. The present investigation demonstrated that the ELISA was effective for the detection of antibody to E. rhusiopathiae, and ELISA values were correlated with GA titers. These results indicate that the vaccination of attenuated strain of E. rhusiopathiaeto piglets should be carried out in consideration of the period that maternal antibodies are lost.