Early pregnancy factor (EPF) was first detected by Morton et al. in the maternal serum within 24-48 h after fertilization, and they demonstrated by the rosette inhibition test that EPF augments the immunosuppressive action of an antilymphocyte serum (ALS). Ever since, EPF has been detected in sera of various animal species. In cattle, EPF has also been detected, but detailed reports are few, and supplementary examination of clinical applications has not been published. In the current investigation, we first tested sera from six cattle 15 days after artificial insemination and from six nonpregnant cattle, and analyzed rosette inhibition titers (RIT) between pregnancy and nonpregnancy. As a result, statistically significant difference was noted between pregnancy and nonpregnancy. Secondly, for clinical application, we measured the EPF activity in pregnant sera from day 2 to 38 after artificial insemination. The EPF activity was first demonstrated at day 2 after artificial insemination, and it persisted to day 38 when the diagnosis by conventional pregnancy tests was able to performed. Then the EPF transition of recipient cattle after embryo-transfer was investigated. In two recipient cattle, no EPF activities could be detected by day 14 after artificial insemination, and they were diagnosed as nonpregnancy. In the other two, EPF activity was continued, and pregnancy was clinicall diagnosed. Another one showed EPF activity by day 15, but the activity then disappeared, which suggested an early embryonic death. These results demonstrate that it is capable to diagnose pregnancy by EPF, and that it is useful to monitor viable embryos in cattle
Changes in levels of serum-and red blood cell-tocopherol, and serum-vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) after oral administration of vitamin AD3E premix were examined in calves and prepartum milk cattle of the Holstein breed. In the milk cattle, levels of tocopherol and vitamin A in the colostrum and serum of newborn calves were also examined. In the calves, tocopherol levels of serum and red blood cell after administration of 1, 000 IU (about 10 IU/kg) of vitamin E were not increased, but both tocopherol levels after administration of 2, 500 IU (about 25IU/kg) increased markedly from 8 to 72 hours following administration. The serum levels of vitamin A increased slightly by administration of 200, 000 IU (about 2, 040 IU/kg) of vitamin A. However, a significant increase of serum vitamin A level was observed from 2 to 48 hours after the administration of 500, 000 IU (about 5, 102 IU/kg). In the prepartum milk cattle, tocopherol levels of serum and red blood cell increased slightly by administration of 12, 500 IU (about 22 IU/kg) of vitamin E. Both tocopherol levels after administration of 25, 000 IU (about 44 IU/kg) of vitamin E increased significantly from 4 to 72 hours, and tocopherol levels of colostrum and serum of newborn calves just after parturition also increased markedly. Vitamin A levels of serum increased markedly from 2 to 24 hours after administration of 2, 500, 000 IU (about 4, 468 IU/kg) or 5, 000, 000 IU (about 8, 928 IU/kg) of vitamin A. Although an increase of vitamin A levels was observed in colostrum, no increase of the levels in serum of newborn calves just after birth was observed. From the findings described above, it was clarified that a significant increase in blood tocopherol levels by oral administration of dl-a-tocopherol acetate is attained by doses over 25 IU/kg in calf and 44 IU/kg in prepartum milk cattle.
Candida krusei isolated from milk of a cow with clinical mastitis was inoculated into the lactiferous duct of three lactating goats. Six udders were inoculated with 102, 104, 106 or 108 CFU of the organisms, and the goats and their milk were observed clinically, bacteriologically and physically for 15 days after inoculation. All the goats were killed on the 15th day and examined bacteriologically and pathologically. In a goat inoculated with 108 CFU of C. krusei, clinically mastitis was not developed. However, 24 hours after inoculation, pH, modified CMT, numbers of somatic cells and leukocytes, and NAGase in milk were increased. A 10×103 amount of C. krusei was isolated from milk. Subclinical mastitis was observed in a goat inoculated with 106 CFU of the organisms, and C. krusei was isolated over the experimental period. Thus, subclinical mastitis was reproduced in the goats when inoculated with 106, and 108 CFU of C. krusei.
Solubilized Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) vaccine and its lyophilized product were prepared by treating virus-infected HmLu-1 cells with nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and emulsifying extracted proteins in hydrophilic oil adjuvant or Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Twenty-three 2-to 3.5-month-old pigs and four 7-day-old suckling pigs without antibodies against ADV were injected with 2 doses of each of these vaccines at 2 to 4 weeks intervals. Two to 4 weeks after the 2nd injection, the vaccinated pigs were challenged intranasally with 106.0 or 103.0 TCID50 of a virulent strain of ADV. The nasal swabs were collected daily between 2 and 14 days after the challenge. The results showed that the pigs vaccinated with hydrophilic oil adjuvant vaccine produced significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than those receiving the Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine, and almost of the vaccinated pigs of the former were not found to shed the challenge virus after challenge with virulent ADV, suggesting usefulness of this vaccine.
A 21-month-old, female, Holstein-Friesian cattle was introduced from Iwate Prefecture to Yamagata Prefecture 10 months ago and raised for fattening. The cattle suddenly sowed severe anemia, jaundice, and hemoglobinuria. After various treatment, clinical and clinicopathological examinations for 8 days, she was euthanatized and submitted for pathological examination. Hematologically, hemolysis, erythropenia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and parasitemia of Theileria sergenti were seen. Immunofluorescent antibody to Babesia ovata was positive, but no B. ovata was detected in blood. smears. The serum GOT, γ-GT, and total bilirubin had increased rapidly in the course of sickness. At necropsy, marked jaundice, enlarged spleen and liver, and the distended gallbladder filled with thick bile were noted. These findings suggested that the cattle may have suffered from a mixed infection with B. ovata and T. sergenti.
The concentration of Phenolsuifonphthalein (PSP) in plasma was measured 60 minutes after injection of PSP at 1 mg per kg of body weight (PSP60) for testing renal functions in dogs. In 42 healthy dogs, the normal range of PSP60 was 0-71.8 μg/dl. In three dogs with an experimental renal tubular disorder, PSP60 values were correlated with clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings. Therefore, it was presumed that the PSP60 might possibly reflect renal tubular dysfunctions.
The effect of Ivermectin (IVM) administered at 20, μg/kg (approximately twice the recommended dosage for prevention of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs 6-9μg/kg) was evaluated in 2-month-old roughhaired collies. Penetration of the compound into the central nervous system tissue was also assessed. Four rough-haired collies and 4 mongrel dogs were given IVM once orally at 20μg/kg while 4 control dogs (2 rough-haired collies and 2 mongrel dogs) were given placebo (vehicle). Animals were observed for clinical signs for 24 hours after treatment. No abnormal findings, including neurologic signs, were observed. No abnormalities associated with IVM treatment were recorded for any variables measured on electrocardiographic, hematological, blood biochemical and histpathological evaluations. There was no significant difference in plasma IVM levels determined 6 and 24 hours after treatment between the collie group and the mongrel dog group. No apparent difference was detectable in absorption or excretion of IVM in the two groups. In 3 collies and 4 mongrel dogs, the IVM levels in the central nervous system tissue 24 hours after treatment were not detectable. For one collie, the IVM concentration in the cerebellum determined at the same time was about one-third that of the plasma level and the levels in the brain stem and spinal cord were approximately equal to that in the plasma. These results demonstrated that IVM could penetrate into the central nervous system tissues in some collies. The results of this study indicate that the low single oral dose of 6-9 μg/kg required for prevention of D. immitis infection in dogs is not expected to cause any adverse effects in collies.
Fourteen cases of follicular centre cell lymphoma, one case of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and one case of lymphoblastic lymphoma (acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were investigated by electron microscopy. In all cases of follicular centre cell lymphomas, there were nuclear cleavage and slight development of rough endoplasmic reticula, with varide frequencies. Desmosome-like junctions were present in 8 of 14. A lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma revealed a wide range of cell differentiation from small lymphoid cells to immunoglobulin-producing cells containing well-developed rough endoplasmic reticula and among them neoplastic follicular centre cells predominated. The neoplastic cells of lymphoblastic lymphoma lacked characteristic ultrastructures. These lymphomas were distinguishable from T-cell lymphomas with convoluted nuclei. Swine lymphomas were compared with those of other animals and the morphology of lymphomas may be fairly different according to species.
Two methods for isolation of pathogenic bacteria from milk were developed. Both were able to make a small culture volume of a large quantity of milk, and recover only a few bacteria from milk (100 cfu/100ml). One method was that milk was cultured with an epual volume of twofold concentrated enrichment medium. Another was that milk added with hydrochloric solution was centrifuged to harvest coagulated milk (curd) as a sediment. The sedimented pellet was mixed with an equal volume of twofold concentrated enrichment medium, and cultured after the pH was adjusted to neutral with sodium hydroxide solution.