From August through December in 1988, edema disease sporadically broke out in piglets 30-43 days of age raised on three pig farms within the juris diction of Ehime's Chuo Livestock Hygiene Service Center, and pathological and bacteriological examinations were carried out. A bacteriological examination was carried in 7 dead animals which had been diagnosed as edema disease from the clinical signs and pathological findings and in one slaughtered case according to the results of a diagnostic test, and Escherichia coli was isolated from the small intestines at the ratio of 107-10 cfu/g. Serotype of the isolates turned out to be 0139 and these bacteria were found to produce Vero toxin. Furthermore, this toxin was identified as VT2vp by a DNA hybridization test using beads-ELISA and an oligonucleotide probe. From these findings, VT2vp-toxigenic Escherichia coli was considered to be a causative organism of swine edema disease. In addition, since some pigs having VT2vp-toxigenic Escherichia coli were confirmed, it was suggested that these carriers could possibly be an infection source. The present study is the first to isolate VT2vp-toxigenic Escherichia coli from pigs with edema disease or healthy pigs in Japan.
A total of 924 serum samples from swine in 1990 were examined by indirect immunoperoxidase plaque staining (IIPS) test, complement-dependent neutralization test (CNT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and latex agglutination (LA) tests. Agreement among these methods for the detection of positive and negative sera was expressed as percentage of the total number of sera examined. Detection of the antibody by IIPS was compared with that by CNT, LA and ELISA. IIPS and CNT showed 99.6% agreement. IIPS and ELISA or LA indicated 93.7% and 93.3% agreement, respectively. Agreement of ELISA with the other methods ranged from 93.6% to 95.3%. Detection of the antibody by LA was compared with that of CNT, IIPS and ELISA. Agreement of LA with CNT, IIPS and ELISA was 93.1%, 93.3% and 95.3%, respectively. Definite results were obtained by CNT and IIPS, while the results for 12 and 35 of the 924 serum samples were ambiguous for ELISA and LA, respectively. Based on the present data, IIPS and CNT may be concluded to be the most reliable methods for conducting serodiagnosis of Aujeszky's disease in swine.
The incidence of arrhythmia was examined on 269 normal Holstein hifers, of which 10 animals showed 4 types of arrhythmia. In five cases, Wenckebach type sino-atrial block was found. Sinus arrhythmia (2 cases), second degree atrio-ventricular block (2 cases) and Wenckebach type sino-atrial block plus atrioventricular junctional premature contraction (1 case) were detected. These arrhythmias in clinically normal heifers would in most cases be due to physiological factors induced by increased vagal tone and may differ from those generally observed in lactating Holstein cows.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody to glycoprotein OH of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) was evaluated in comparison with the serum neutralization (NT) and latex agglutination tests. A total of 1128 sera were collected from pigs of both ADV-free and infected farms. The sensitivity and specificity of the Off ELISA, relative to NT, were 99.7% and 99.9%, respectively. A judgement agreement between both tests was 99.8%. In pigs experimentally inoculated with five field isolates of ADV, the g III ELISA detected antibodies from post-inoculation day 7 to 14. Pigs vaccinated with g III-deleted vaccine were positive for antibodies by the NT but negative by the On ELISA, and produced anti-g III antibody after being exposed to a virulent ADV. The present results indicate that pigs infected with virulent ADV can be differentiated from those received g III-deleted vaccine by the g III ELISA, and a vaccination program using the g III-deleted vaccine, in conjunction with the g III ELISA, would contribute to the eradication of Aujeszky's disease.
The average plasma amylase activity in 716 healthy adult dogs examined by the PNP-7G method was found to be 2093.5±624.5IU/l with a range from 552.6IU/l to 3908.6IU/l. The levels in newborns and puppies were smaller than those in adult dogs. In adult dogs, age, sex, breed, estrus, pregnancy, lactation, feeding, starvation or obesity had no influence on the amylase results, and no daily or seasonal fluctuation was found. Elevation of the amylase activities was observed in dogs with renal diseases or upper intestinal lesions. Some conditions influencing the renal and/or pancreatic functions through direct or indirect effects affected the plasma amylase levels.
Trimelarsen, which is usually used as an anthelmintic against Dirofilaria immitis, was administered intravenously to 3 cats which were seriously infected with Hemobartonella felis observed on the surface of erythrocytes on blood smears. As a result, H. felis disappeared from the peripheral blood 3 hours after the administration in the earliest case, and no recurrence was observed for the following 6 months to 1 year. This suggests that treatment with Trimelarsen is effective for feline Hemobartonellosis.
Squamous cell carcinoma in the right craminal lung lobe of a 16-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow was observed. The original neoplastic mass, grayish-white in color and 20×10×3cm in size, occupied the posterior half of the cranial lobe of the right lung. Numerous metastatic nodules sized up to 1cm in diameter were scattered over the right pulmonary pleura, pericardium and thoracic wall and sometimes infiltrated into the surrounding tissue. A cord-like arrangement and nest formation were seen in the dense fibrous stroma. The neoplastic cells closely resembled squamous epithelial cells. They had oval or round, large hypochromatic nuclei with several nucleoli and eosinophilic keratohyaline granules in the cytoplasm.