During the period between August, 1988 and July, 1989, Tonsilla veli palatini were collected from 1, 322, 6-month-old fattening pigs and 56, 35-month-old breeding sows at a slaughterhouse to survey the incidence of Tonsillophilus suis infection. Monthly incidences of T. suis infection in fattening pigs and breeding sows were 16.9% and 57.1%, respectively, without seasonal difference. Microbial colonies showing zoospores, filaments, thalli or tubers with radiating clubs were found in abscesses in the tonsillar crypts and the granuloma in the tonsillar parenchyma. So far as we know, this may be the first report on swine tonsillitis caused by T. suis in Japan.
One hundred and one calves, 99 Holstein calves and 2 Japanese Black beef calves, were reared in the Tokachi District and carried to a meat inspection center. Their thyroids were subjected to a weighing, histological examination and measurement of serum thyroid hormone. Thyroid weight for 43 calves (42.6%) were below 15g, 46 calves (45.5%) from 15g to 30g and 12 calves (11.9%) over 30g. Histologically, 4 of 12 calves over 30g of thyroid weight showed a diffuse parenchymatous goiter. The serum thyroxine (T4) levels of these 4 cases decreased slightly but the serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels increased significantly. Therefore, the T4/T3 ratio was very low. Consequently, many cases which seemed healthy had goiter caused by iodine deficiency, and it was determined that the Tokachi District is a region where enzootic goiter is prevalent.
The author experienced some cases in which colibacillary diarrhea was cured when the affected suckling piglets were weaned by force. This suggested that the abnormal quality of the mothers' milk might be one of the causative factors that induced abnormal proliferation of pathogenic E. coll. Attempts were made to prevent and treat piglets' diarrhea, particularly collibacillary diarrhea, by administering vitamins to the dams with simultaneous amelioration in feeding in order to improve quality of their milk. As a result, the treatment turned out to be very effective. These methods of the prevention and treatment of colibacillary diarrhea based on the experience may provide new information about the disease and are considered to be an influential measure to avoid excessive use of antibiotics.
Pathologic investigation was performed on the kidney of a calf treated with massive doses of kanamycin. Macroscopically, the renal cortex was a pale yellowish-brown color. Histopathologically, vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells, particularly in the proximal tubules and dilation of the renal tubules containing cellular debris were observed. Dilation of the renal collecting tubules and hyaline droplet degeneration of the collecting tublar epithelia were also seen, though glomerular changes were not observed. This case was diagnosed as a toxic tubulo-nephrosis caused by kanamycin.
A short-type aspirator of follicular fluid was developed for collecting simultaneously follicular fluid and granulosa cells from mature follicules of live estrous cows. It was designed so as to provide the following advantages.(1) It can be handled without an assistant.(2) It can be operated with one hand by making length minimal (135mm) and thus needle point movement least.(3) The volume of the internal syringe is about 2ml, thus making it possible to completely aspirate the mature follicular fluid.(4) The syringe needle is 1.2×34mm and does not bend easily when puncturing a follicle through the vaginal wall. It may be used not only for the aspiration of folliclar fluid but also for direct drug injection into the ovarian parencyma and follicular cysts.
A parasitic location of living adult Dirofilaria immitis and heart rate, diameter fo pulmonary arteries, right cardiac output, stroke volume and right cardiac velocity in 18 infected and 6 normal control dogs were estimated by 2-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) and pulse doppler method (PD). The 2-DE indicated that living adult D. immitis commonly habited the main pulmonary arteries of the infected dogs used in this study. This was reconfirmed by 2-DE in 2 experimentally infected dogs that were surgically implanted with each 30 fresh living worms of adult D. immitis through jugular vein. The observation by 2-DE revealed that all the worms implanted consistently invaded the pulmonary arteries, particularly the inner part. Data of PD analyzed indicated that a decrease in blood flow induced a movement of the worms from the inner part of the pulmonary arteries toward the pulmonary artery valve. This was reconfirmed in two overanesthetized dogs, showing that the worms inversely moved from the inner part of the pulmonary arteries into the right ventricle beyond the pulmonary artery valve when the heart was suspended.
To evaluate the usefulness of a mutilayered dry chemistry system (KONICA DRYLABO SYSTEM, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.), total cholesterol (T-Cho), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides (TG), total bilirubin (T-Bil), aspartate aminotransferase (AST or GOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT or GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in canine plasma treated with heparin or EDTA-2Na, were measured by the dry and routine wet (RaBA-Σ, ChugaiPharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Hitachi Auto Analyzer, Hitachi Ltd.) chemistry systems. The correlation coefficients in each analyte between the dry and two wet chemistry systems ranged from 0.761 to 0.992. Slopes of 1.341 to 1.888 were found in T-Bil (RaBA), ALP (RaBA and Hitachi) and CPK (Hitachi). In LDH, the slope was 0.774 (RaBA) or 0.729 (Hitachi). The variation of coefficients in this dry chemistry system ranged from 1.5 to 11.3% in the intra-assay, and from 2.2 to 15.1% in the inter-assay except for CPK. Compared with serum or samples without hemolysis, the anticoagulants (heparin and EDTA-2Na) and hemolysis (Hb concentration: about 50-200mg/dl) significantly affected values measured by the dry chemistry system. It appears that the operation of the analyzer is simpler, measuring time shorter and sample volume smaller (10μl) in this dry chemistry than in routine wet chemistry analyzer. However, the interpretations in case of the interferance Of anticoagulants or hemolysis should be taken into consideration in the dry chemistry system.
Lymnaea truncatula is found in the Nemuro district of Hokkaido, but not Lymnaea ollula an intermediate host of Fasciola sp. L. truncatula from this district was examined to determine whether it functions as a snail host for liver flukes. Rediae and cercariae were observed in 2 of 1, 024 snails from Betsukai-cho in the Nemuro district. Experimental infection of L. truncatula was induced by miracidia of Fasciola sp. from Betsukai-cho. Rediae and cercariae were observed in 90 and 6 of 150 snails, respectively. L. truncatula is thus clearly shown to serve as an intermediate host of Fasciola sp. in the Nemuro district.
Pathological and bacteriological examinations were conducted on a bovine mastitis caused by Nocardia. Macroscopicaly, the cut surface of the udder was greyish white in color, and general edema with hemorrhage being observed. Histopathologically, necrosis of the mammary gland was seen, and exudate cells and tissue debris filled the alveoli. The Grocott's stain revealed numerous fungal threads. Bacteriologicaly, white and dry colonies were isolated in pure culture from the mammary lesions. The organism was identified as Nocardia asteroides from the biological characteristics. From these observations, this case was diagnosed as a gangrenous mastitis caused by N. asteroides.