To examine the safety and immunogenicity of an attenuated strain of Getah virus, 3-day-old and 2-to 3-month-old piglets, and pregnant sows were inoculated with the attenuated KB/VT strain which had been established from the field 2078 strain of Getah virus by serial passages at 30°C in Vero cell cultures. The KB/VT strain induced neither clinical abnormal signs nor viremia in any animals inoculated with the KB/VT strain, while the field 2078 strain induced viremia. The 3-day-old piglets which were inoculated subcutaneously or intracerebrally with the KB/VT strain or the 2078 strain were subjected to the recovery of virus from the organs. The viruswas recovered from limited organs such as the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes of the piglets inoculated with the KB/VT strain and furthermore, the amount of the recovery virus from these organs was smaller than that from the piglets inoculated with the 2078 strain. The pregnant sows which had been inoculated with the KB/VT strain naturally gave normal birth. HI antibodies against Getah virus were detected in all of pigs inoculated with the KB/VT strain. These results showed that the attenuated strain has satisfactory properties of safety and immunogenicity as live vaccine.
With the objective of elucidating the etiology of uric acid calculi of the urinary tract in newborn piglets, 28 healthy newborn piglets and 21 weak newborn piglets, which were born in the winter months, were investigated. Clinically, yellow diarrhea was observed in 10 of the weak newborn piglets. Autopsy of these piglets revealed pale pink, fine granular calculi in the renal pyramids and papillae in 8 piglets, and abnormalities, such as petechial hemorrhage and edema in the kidneys, as well as discoloration of the liver, in 5 piglets. histopathological studies were conducted on the liver, kidney, sternal bone marrow, and spleen. Calculi were present in the tubular lumina without obstructing the tubules, and were identified as uric acid calculi by a staining of Saint-Hilaire method. However, the relationship between the calculi and the histopathological abnormalities could not be determined. A blood biochemical study on the weak piglets revealed a low value of serum albumin and high values of GOT, GPT, creatinine, BUN, uric acid, lactic acid, and inorganic phosphorus. In addition, one week after delivery, the serum total protein level and the hepatic uricase level were lower than normal levels. On the basis of the above findings, uric acid calculi of the urinary tract in weak newborn piglets which were born in the winter months is surmised to be induced by the combined action of 1) factors peculiar to newborn piglets, such as hepatic hypofunction, a low uricase level in the liver, acidosis, renal hypofunction, and increased catabolism of protein accompanying hypoalimentation, and 2) bad conditions for health, such as diarrhea and cold.
Anticoccidial effect of diclazuril was assayed in broilers under field conditions. Diclazuril was mixed in broiler's feed at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0ppm. Salinomycin was also used with its concentration of 50ppm in feed and served as the control. These five medicated feeds were provided to 5 groups of chickens, respectively, throughout their rearing term until one week before they were sent out for slaughter. Efficacy of the drugs was assessed by their suppressing effects on oocyst production in medicated chickens. Unmedicated control chickens suffered from coccidiosis with clinical sign of bloody droppings. Considerably large numbers of oocysts were observed in feces of control chickens throughout all examining times. Salinomycin-medicated chickens also showed continuous oocyst excretion with certain numbers of oocysts starting when the chickens were 14 days old. In contrast, oocyst excretion was completely inhibited by the medication of diclazuril at the levels of 0.25 ppm or more in feed, while only countable amounts of oocysts were permitted at 0.125 ppm in feed. When percent of sporulation was estimated for oocysts derived from 0.125ppm-dicrazuril medicated chickens, it was substantially lower suggesting that diclazuril has an inhibiting effect not only in oocyst productions but in oocyst sporulation. In the laboratory test, anticoccidial effect of diclazuril was confirmed with results similar to those of the field trial.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to simultaneouly determine retinol, β-carotene (β-C), α-tocopherol (α-Toc) in serum of Japanese Black beef cattle. The method utilized a Radial-Pack C-18, 5μm column and an elution solvent composed of methanol: chloroform (85: 15). Retinol and α-Toc were eluted at 305nm and then R-C at 453nm. The total run was about 12min. This method was used to estimate these three vitamins in serum from cattle of different feeding groups, that is, breeding, growing stage, and late stage of fattening, (kept at the Sumiyoshi Animal Farm, Miyazaki Univ.) as well as the last stage of fattening, before being sent to a slaughterhouse for sale. Levels of serum retinol and β-C in the last stage group were lower than levels in the other 3 groups. Serum levels of α-Toc of the last and late stages of fattening were lower than levels in the other 2 groups. The liver of the last fattening group contained a very low level of retinol. There was a significant correlation between α-Toc and β-C in serum of each group kept at the Sumiyoshi Farm.
The results of orchiectomies conducted by the abdominal route, the lower abdominal approach and through the scrotum were compared in rabbits. Operation time, surgical complication and incision healing were evaluated. The scrotum route had the shortest surgical time. Accumulation of serous fluid in the scrotum was observed in one rabbit operated by the scrotum route. Neither inflammation nor peritoneal adhesions were detected in any of the rabbits. Since the canalis vaginalis is closed by use of the lower abdominal route, the risk of scrotal hernia is nil using this route whereas it may be possible using the other two routes. We conclude that the lower abdominal route is an appropriate method for orchiectomy in rabbits.
We here report 2 cases of liver rupture in cats with systemic amyloidosis. At autopsy, severe anemia and remarkable jaundice were found, while no abdominal trauma was detected. The peritoneal cavity contained voluminous blood. The enlarged liver was poorly pliable. Numerous large subcapsular hematomas were observed on all the hepatic lobes. Cut surfaces of the liver showed extensive parenchymal hemorrhage. Histopathologically, heavy amyloid deposition was seen in the Disse's spaces and the walls of the hepatic arterioles, portal veins and central veins. There were linear amyloid depositions in the hepatic capsule and subcapsular regions. Amyloid deposition was also observed in other organs. Hemorrhage might be associated with vascular and parenchymal fragility from amyloid deposition. The subcapsular hematoma and parenchymal hemorrhage in the liver distended the capsule, and resulted in peritoneal hemorrhage by liver rupture.
Methods of isolation of Listeria monocytogenes (L. m.) from raw milk were investigated. Three enrichment media, enrichment broth (EB) of the FDA method, L-PALCAMY (L-PAL) of Van Netten et al., and Merck's Listeria enrichment broth (LEB); enrichment by the two-stage method (2-st) of Slade et al.; and 4 plating media, modified McBride Listeria agar (MMA), LiCl phenylethanol moxalactam agar (LPM), Oxford formulation (OX), and PALCAM Listeria selective agar (PAL) were combined, and recovery tests of L. m. were performed to evaluate each combination. The best enrichment of L. m. was achieved by L-PAL; when L. m. was present in raw milk at less than 102/ml, the number of L. m. increased to 107-108/ml after 24 hours of culture. Although there was no clear difference between the 4 plating media in terms of the number of L. m. grown in the media, OX and PAL were superior to MMA and LPM in terms of the number of bacteria other than L. m. grown in the media and the ease of observation of L. m. colonies. Raw milk produced in Saitama Prefecture and brought to milk processing factories in Saitama Prefecture was positive for Listeria in 5.3%(8/150) of the raw milk samples, and L. m. was identified in 4.0%(6/150), while L. innocua was identified in 1.3%(2/150) of the samples. The serotype of the isolated L. m. was 1a for all isolates.
Eosinophilic myeloid leukaemia encountered in a mixed breed sow was investigated. This case showed only slight lymphadenopathy in contrast to marked splenomegaly. The liver was alsoenlarged and fragile in consistency. Sagittal section of the vertebrae included numerous osteolytic foci filled with greenish bone marrow. Neoplastic lesions were greenish to yellowish green in color. This characteristic discoloration of affected portions faded within 2 hours after exposure to the fresh air. Preparatesmade from the remaining blood in the carcass and touch smears of tumorous lesions were predominated by well-differentiated tumor cells, which retained some features of eosinophilic promyelocytes and/or myelocytes such as peroxidasepositive eosinophilic granules. Histopathologically, all portions with discoloration were infiltrated and mostly replaced by neoplastic eosinophils of various sizes.