Purulent mastitis occurred in 26 out of 46 quarters of 9-14-month-old heifers experimentally infected with a mixture ofActinomyces pyogenesandPeptococcus indolicus. The infection occurred in 17 out of 21 quarters, 5 out of 9 quarters, 2 out of 4 quarters and 2 out of 4 quarters by inoculation of the mammary gland, lactiferous sinus, muscles of the teat and cutis of the udder, respectively. Inoculation of the cutis of the teat and subcutis of the udder did not cause any disease. Infection in the estrogen-injected group and estrogen-uninjected group occurred in 13 out of 21 quarters and 13 out of 25 quarters, respectively. Systemic signs in the affected cases were pronounced within 1-3 weeks after inoculation. Inflammatory edema of the abdomen was seen in 3 out of 8 cases 1-2 weeks after inoculation, while inflammation such as redness, swelling, heat and pain, and presence of pus after squeezing of the udder were observed 1 week after, persisting for 8 weeks after inoculation. Indulation of the udder and absence of pus after squeezing of the udder were seen 1-2 weeks and 3 weeks after inoculation, respectively. Cutaneous fistulas of the udder were pronounced after 3-4 weeks. High protease serum antibody titre persisted for 8 weeks after inoculation in the affected cases. Pathologically, suppurative colliquation and fibrous proliferation in the mucosa of the lactiferous sinus and mammary gland, cutaneous fistulas of the udder and obliteration of the lactiferous sinus were pronounced in the affected quarters. As a result, the experiment was able to reproduce the same lesions as those found in spontaneous cases of summer mastitis.
Ostium secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASD) were found in 44 of 243 bovine hearts with congenital cardiac anomalies except for patent foramen ovale. All defects were situated at the ostium secundum or fossa ovalis. Sinus venosus, coronary sinus or common atrium-type ASD could not be found. Eight of 44 ASD hearts were isolated ASD and 36 were associated with other various cardiac anomalies. Eight calves with isolated ASD died or necropsied prior to reaching 58 days of age due to either extracardiac anomalies, enteritis or rupture of the viscera. At necropsy, these calves showed no indication of congestive heart failure. Twenty-two of 44 ASD cattle showed extracardiac congenital defects. The incidence of ASD indicated no distinct correlation with the bovine species or bovine sex.
In order to clarify changes in blood levels after administration of selenium and tocopherol, oral administration of premix A and B and intramuscular injection of E·SE were carried out in the horse. Oral administration of 50 g/day of premix A and 25 g/day of premix B for 8 weeks, resulted in marked increases of two weeks later, while serum tocopherol level and blood glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px) activity did not increase. However, in a horse administered premix B only, blood GSH-Px activity increased slightly eight weeks later. When injected with 2 to 2.5 ml/100 kg of E·SE one of four times at 2 or 4 weeks interval, serum selenium levels increased rapidly one day later and a high concentration was maintained over two to four weeks. In particular, serum selenium remained at high levels above 100 ppm after two injections. Serum tocopherol levels increased markedly the next day after E·SE injection and high concentrations continued from two to three weeks after injection. Blood GSH-Px activity increased slightly to about 30 i.u six or eight weeks after injection. In newborn foals from mares injected with E·SE prior to parturition, serum tocopherol and selenium levels and blood GSH-Px activity were below the levels found in their respective mothers. Tocopherol levels in the colostrum just after parturition were higher than serum tocopherol levels in newborn foals, suggesting that the newborn foals might have received tocopherol mainly from colostral milk.
Two cows had a Cesareansection by a left hind flank transverse incision showing favorable results. The animals wele of Holstein, a primipara of 3 years and a 5-year-old cow with the 3rd confinement. A Cesarean section was performed 6 days before the estimated delivery date on the former and 16 days after the day on the latter. An approach to the uterus was made in the orthostatic position under local infiltration anesthesia, and a transverse incision 25-30 cm long starting from a point about 15cm anterior to the patella on the virtual line connecting the patella and the center of the forearm. As a result using this method, in comparison with a hind flank longitudinal incision, the median incision or paramedian incision, manipulations of laparotomy, incision of the uterus and withdrawal of the fetus were easily carried out with no amniotic fluid flowing into the peritoneum. Furthermore, suturing of the uterine walls was easily, the postoperative course was favorable, and fatigue of the surgical operator was greatly reduced. In addition, both animals were conceptive 35 days later.
Compensating filters were constructed in an effort to equalize the radiographic densities of X-ray films in veterinary medicine. The shape and thickness of compensating filters made with aluminum and vinyl chloride were determined by measuring the density distributions of clinical X-ray films. Clinical comparisons between compensating filters and conventional radiographic techniques were carried out on several body regions of small animals. Compensating filter techniques demonstrated improved radiographic density and image quality in the normally over-penetrated regions with no increase in artifact frequency over that achieved with conventional radiographic techniques. It was concluded that compensating filter techniques can be employed for diagnostic purposes to improve the image quality of radiographic systems in veterinary medicine.
Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction tests of canine neutrophils were performed in 33 healthy dogs. The positive percentages of resting and endotoxin-stimulated NBT reduction tests were 46.9±6.0%(mean±S. E.) and 73.8±5.7%(signifiicant increase, p<0.001), respectively. The simplicity of the histochemical NBT reduction test used in this study indicates that it may be useful as a routine laboratory examination to measure the cellular functions of canine neutrophils.
A total of 269 cats, consisting of 89 males and 180 females, obtained from the Saitama Prefectural Pet Raiser's Guidance Center were examined seroepidemiologically forToxoplasma gondiiinfection between June 1988 and May 1989. Of 269 cats examined, 33 (12.3%) cats were positive for antibodies toToxoplasma gondiiby the latex agglutination test. The positive rate in the present study was nearly the same as that reported previously in Saitama and neighboring prefectures. Twenty-four of 33 cats positive for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were further examined for isolation ofToxoplasma gondiiprotozoa by the blindpassage method using mice. Cysts ofToxoplasma gondiiwere detected from 10 of 24 samples and tachyzoites were not observed in the peritoneal cavity of passaged mice. The positive rate of the antibody tended to increase with age of animals.
Control trials of a synthetic pyrethroid, cyfluthrin, mixed with piperonyl butoxide as a synergist against adult flies of various species occurring in swine houses were carried out. Initially, 30 flies of each spacies ofMuscina stabulans, Fannia canicularis, andAldrichina grahami, collected in swine houses in Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture from October 1988 to July 1989, were respectively placed into six separate cages. One of the cages was assigned as a non-treated control, and another was sprayed with tap water at a volume of 50ml/m2. The other four cages were sprayed with 100-, 200-, 400-, and 800-fold dilutions of a mixture, at a ratio of 1: 5 calculated as active ingredients, of cyfluthrin 5%(W/W) emulsion and piperonyl butoxide at a volume of 50ml/m2. The drug had a very quick-acting and strong insecticidal effect on flies nearly 100% of which were incapacitated and killed. Secondly, three swine houses were sprayed with 200-, 400-, and 800-fold dilutions of the mixture at a volume of 50ml/m2 in July of 1989. The efficacy of the 800-fold dilution was not quite adequate, but the other dilutions, especially the 200-fold dilution effectively exterminated five species of flies, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Fannia canicularis, Aldrichina grahami, andLucilia illustrisoccurring in the houses. From these results, it was concluded that cyfluthrin mixed with piperonyl butoxide was effective against a variety of fly species occurring in swine houses.