A high dosis of E·ESE (contains 2.5mg of selenium and 50mg of d-a-tocopherol in 1 ml) was injected intramuscularly into three horses and the changes of their concentrations in the blood and organs after administration were determined. In a horse injected once with E·SE at 8.3ml/100kg, increases of from 149.8 to 225.3 ppb in serum selenium and from 676.8 to 1369.6μg/100ml in serum tocopherol were observed during a 6-day examination period, while no increase in activity was seen as regards blood glutathioneperoxidas. In a horse injected twice at a 7-day interval with 8.6ml/100kg of E·ESE increases of from 146.0 to 369.9 ppb in serum selenium and from 544.6 to 1443.6μg/100ml in serum tocopherol were observed during a 2-week examination period, but no increase in the blood glutathioneperoxidase activity was seen. In a horse received six injections at a 10 day interval with 5.72ml/100 kg of S·SE, increases of from 72.6 to 119.2 ppb in serum selenium and from 386.5 to 448.3μg/100ml in serum tocopherol were observed during the 60-day examination period. A slight increase in the blood glutathioneperoxidase activity was also observed after 40 days of administration. Selenium and α-tocopherol concentrations in the organs were determined 6 to 10 days after the termination of the experiment. The selenium concentrations in the liver, spleen and kidneys were higher than those of the control horses. The γ-tocopherol concentrations in the liver, adrenal glands, spleen, skeletal muscle and kidneys were higher than those of the control horses. No clinical symptoms were observed in any of the horses examined.
Physiological and pathological variations of plasma phospholipids and total cholesterol were assessed in cattle under various physiological conditions and with liver dysfunction. The plasma concentration of phospholipids tended to increase with an increase in crude lipid content/cattle of feed, but the plasma phospholipids/total cholesterol ratio (PL/T-cho ratio) was almost stable. The plasma phospholipid was steadily reduced in concentration by and soon after parturition. The plasma phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (PC/SM ratio) was decreased around parturition but was increased again with an increase in plasma phospholipid concentration after parturition. The PL/T-cho ratio showed a peak around parturition, with a subsequent decrease following. The change in the PL/T-cho ratio showed a similar pattern to that in serum total bile acid concentration. A follow-up observation in diseased cattle (No.1) revealed a reduction in the plasma PL/T-cho ratio at the time of the onset of liver disease and the following increase lasted until remission of the clinical symptom. In idiopathic cardiomyopathy, the plasma PL/Tcho ratio was reduced at 6-3 weeks before the onset. The PL/T-cho ratio tended to increase in milking cattle having liver damage, but the plasma PC/SM ratio did not show any significant variation compared with the control cattle. Since the plasma PC/SM ratio showed large physiological variations, the usage for clinical diagnosis is not recommended. On the other hand, PL/T-cho in plasma may be a useful indicator for prognosis, because it varied with the pathological states.
The lead concentration in the blood of calves was mainly examined together with the blood examination to investigate the appearance of lead contamination of a farm where lead poisoning had occurred. The clinically normal Japanese Black beef cattle, 10 days of age, was used on 50 calves from an affected farm and 14 calves from a non-affected farm. Results obtained were as follows: 1) The lead concentration in the blood of calves from the affected farm was 51.5±53.1μg/100ml and this was found to be significantly higher than that (7.9±3.6μg/100ml) of calves from the non-affected farm (P<0.01). 2) The free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration of calves from the affected farm was higher than that of calves from the non-affected farm, and a significant correlation was found between them (P<0.05). 3) The calves of the affected farm had been reared in three cattlesheds which were built in 1981 (No.1), 1982 (No.2) and 1983 (No.3). The lead concentration in the blood of calves in each cattleshed was 12.4±7.9μg/100 ml, 48.8±48.9μg/100 ml, 81.8±57.3μg/100 ml, respectively. Comparing these results, the lead concentration in the blood of calves in the newer cattleshed was found to be significantly higher than older ones (1vs 2: p<0.05, 1vs3: p<0.01, 2vs3: p<0.05). 4) The activity of erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase of the calves in the newer cattleshed was found significantly lower than older ones (1vs2: p<0.05, 1vs3: p<0.01). 5) The erythrocyte number, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration of calves in each cattleshed were not significant but the respective level of the calves in the newer cattleshed had a tendency lower than older ones. 6) The activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase of the calves from the affected farm seemed to be higher than normal. These results indicated that the lead contamination was found in calves of the affected farm, and lead contamination of the calves in the newer cattleshed was higher than older ones.
Thirty-nine Japanese Black beef cattle, 10 days of age, with a high contamination of lead were i. v. injected with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Ca, Na2-EDTA) 1g/head/day (32-37mg/kg). Ca, Na2-EDTA was administered for 5 days and this was repeated after a rest of 2 days. The determination of lead concentration in the blood and blood examinations were done periodically 1 week to 10 weeks after the administration of Ca, Na2-EDTA Results obtained were as follows: 1) Although the lead concentration in the blood of the calves increased from 1 to 4 weeks after administration of Ca, Na2-EDTA, it began to decrease from the 7 week and the level at the 10 week was found significantly lower than that of before administration (p<0.05). The calves had been reared in three cattlesheds (No.1-No.3). The change in the lead concentration of calves in each cattleshed indicated that calves in No.1 and No.2 decreased early, but calves in No.3 decreased late. 2) The change in the activity of erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase of the calves in each cattleshed indicated that calves in No.1 increased from 1 weeh to 10 week after administration of Ca, Na2-EDTA, but calves in No.2 and No.3 did not change. 3) The free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration, erythrocyte number, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentrations of calves showed an increase after Ca, Na2-EDTA administration. 4) The activity of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase of calves decreased from 1 week after Ca, Na2-EDTA administration. 5) There was the lead poisoning in 7 calves in No.2 and No.3. No significant correlation with the lead concentration of calves at 10 days of age was found between the affected and non-affected calves. These results indicate that either of calves were in danger of lead poisoning, or the lead concentration in the blood of the calves showed a decrease after Ca, Na2-EDTA administration.
A new hand-held tonometer, “Tono-pen 2” was evaluated and its utility was discussed for use on healthy dogs and cats. Tono-pen 2 measurements were performed on both the eyes of 107 dogs and 58 cats. Overall means±SD of the Tono-pen 2 reading for the dogs and cats were 17.1±3.5 mmHg and 17.5±3.5 mmHg, respectively. The intraocular pressure of the dogs tended to decrease with age. Consequently, the Tono-pen 2 was judged to be a useful instrument for the carrying out of easy operations on small animals, provided the user was sufficiently aware of the sensitivity and special features of the instrument.
A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats.
Fecal samples from 300 cattle arriving at abattoir in Shizuoka Prefecture was examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli 0157: H7 during the period from September to December 1987. E. coli 0157: H7 was isolated 1 (0.33%) out of 300 fecal samples from cattle. The culture filtrate caused a degenerative change in the HeLa cells and was lethal for ddY mice. The reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) technique demonstrated that the isolate produced verocytotoxin 2. This is probably the first report of the isolation of E. coli 0157: H7 from cattle in Japan. Our finding suggests that there is a close relationship between the existence of E. coli 0157: H7 in cattle and contamination of beeves with this serovar of E. coli.