In order to elucidate fetal white muscle disease, mares and their aborted fetuses and premature or newborn foals were divided into three groups and examined. Group I (16 cases) included mares uninjected with E·SE and their aborted fetuses and premature foals. Group II (3 cases) included mares injected with E·SE (containing selenium 2.5 mg/ml and α-tocopherol acetate 50 mg/ml) and their aborted fetuses or premature foals. Horses of Group I and Group II were light horses from the Hidaka district in Hokkaido. Group III (control) included mares (20 cases) and their newborn foals (3 cases), which were heavy horses from the Tokachi district. Degeneration of the skeletal muscle in the aborted fetuses and premature foals (8.0 to 10.5months in fetal age) was observed in 4 cases out of 16 in Group I, but no changes were found in Groups II and III. The serum selenium levels and blood glutathione peroxidase activity in the mares of Group I were significantly markedly lower than those of Groups II and III. The α-tocopherol levels in the organs of the fetuses and foals in Group I and Group II were lower, particularly in the liver and adrenal gland, than in Group III. Selenium levels in the organs of the fetuses and foals in Group I were lower, particularly in the liver and kidneys, than those of Groups II and III. In hay supplied to mares in Group I, low contents of α-tocopherol and selenium were observed. Concentrate supplied to mares of Group III showed a high content of selenium. From these results, it was suggested that nutritional myopathy caused by selenium and tocopherol deficiencies also occurs in the late fetal period of horses.
On February 1989, blood dyscoagulation occurred in piglets during breeding in wire-bottom cages in a swinery and blood test and therapeutical diagnosis suggested vitamin K (VK) dificiency of the disease. Age, floor construction or feed was suspected as the causal factor, so that blood prothrombin activity, thrombo test activity, hepaplastin activity and protein induced by VK absence or antagonist (PIVKA-II) were examined on the basis of the above items. For age, activities began to decrease after switching over to the VK-free feed on the 35th postnatal day and each activity showed the lowest value on the 64th postnatal day after transfer to the wire-bottom cages, but showed an increase on the 88th postnatal day.For the floor construction, the wire-bottom cages caused decreases in activities and PIVKA-II showed a high value (8μg/ml) at the lowest value of each activity, while the plain floor caused no decrease in activity. For feed, the VKfree group showed a decrease in activities and PIVKA-II showed a high value (8μg/ml) at the lowest value of each activity, while the VK-added group caused no decrease in activity. It was suggested that pathogenesis of the present disease had a close causal relationship with the wire-bottom cages and that those piglets which were fed VK-free food in wire-bottom cages were apt to suffer VK deficiency.
A feline tri-valent inactivated vaccine adjuvanted with oil emulsion (F3V·OE) has been developed against feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV), feline viral rhinotracheitis virus (FVRV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) infections. This vaccine contains lyophilized antigens consisting of formalin-inactivated and concentrated FCV and FPLV from cell cultures, and detergent-solubilized cells infected with FVRV. When kittens were immunized with the F3V·OE, high antibody titers were elicited. Three-to 5-month-old kittens were injected twice with the F3V·OE in a single or triple dose at an interval of 3weeks, and were examined for pathological changes of injection sites every 3weeks from 1 to 15 weeks after injection. No adverse clinical signs were recognized durig the observation period. Macroscopically, at 1week after injection, slight swelling at the injection sites was observed only in the triple dose injection group, but the change disappeared after 3weeks. In the single dose injection group, no gross chages such as swelling or hemorrhage or microscopic changes such as muscle degeneration or necrosis were obseved. However, formation of adjuvant granuloma, infiltration and accumulation of lymphoid cells in the connective and muscle tissue were observed until 9weeks, diminishing after 12 weeks. Three-to 5-month old kittens were vaccinated with F3V·OE twice at a 3-week interval. Following challenge with virulent FPLV, FVRV and FCV at 6months post-vaccination, none of the vaccinates showed significant clinical signs of infection. It was demonstrated that the F3V·OE is effective in preventing FPLV, FVRV, and FCV infections, and that the vaccine is safe in kittens.
An ox cow with endocarditis was examined pathologically and bacteriologically. A verruciform growth was found in the tricuspid valve. Pulmonary interstitial edema was observed. The liver was yellowishbrown and enlarged. Histopathologically, thrombus containing bacteria was formed on the surface of the tricuspid valve. Interlobular edema and thickening of the interalveolar septa were observed in the lungs. Fatty degeneration and necrosis were present in the liver. An aerobic culture of the endocardial thrombus yielded pure culture of Moraxella bovis. The present case was diagnosed as endocarditis caused by M. bovis.