The authors studied three horses with equine laminitis that had an affected hoof on the front right side and an unaffected hoof on the back right side which were diagnosed by X-ray examination. Three other horses with 6 unaffected hooves on the front and back left side were also studied as a control by scanning electron and light microscopy. The findings of the affected hooves are as follows: The coconformations of cornual tubuli (tubuli epidermales) and dermal papillae (papillae dermales) in the cornu (corona) were irregular in pattern. The interface between the dermal lamina (lamellae dermales) and epidermal lamina (lamellae epidermales) in the middle paries and apex ungulae was irregular. The epidermal lamina was complicated in structure with varied lengths and the internal corneum (stratum internum) became thicker. The delineate of the secondary epidermal lamina was unclear, and the onychogenic fibrils were hypoplastic. The structural patterns of the cornual tubuli in the sole (soles) and the interface at the white line (zona alba) between the cornual paries and the sole in the epidermal lamina had irregular faces. However, the interface between the cornual tubuli and the toric dermis (dermis tori) in the toricungula (torus ungulae) were not changed. The dermis contained a dilated venous and edematous arterial wall. In the spinous layer of the epidermis, thickening due to progressive proliferation and edematous degeneration were found. The cells of the spinous layer had abundant keratohyalin granules in their cytoplasm.
An attenuated Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) vaccine with deletions in thymidine kinase and glycoprotein-gIII genes was evaluated. Sixteen 3-day-old piglets, which had been vaccinated with 1, 10-1 or 10-2 dose of the vaccine, were challenge-exposed intranasally to a virulent strain of ADV on postvaccination day (PVD) 11 together with 5 non-vaccinated piglets of the same age. None of the vaccinates exhibited adverse reactions to the vaccination, and all were protected against the challenge-exposure, while 3 of the 5 control piglets developed severe clinical signs and died after challenge-exposure. Four pigs vaccinated with one dose of the vaccine at 4weeks of age were challenged intranasally with the virulent strain on PVD 21 together with 4 non-vaccinated pigs. After exposure, the vaccinates developed no clinical signs except for Slight fever and shed ADV for 4 to 6days. On the other hand, in all of the control pigs, clinical signs for 3 to 5days, fever for 6days, and virus shedding for 8 to 13days were observed. Anti-ADV antibodies were detected in the vaccinates on PVD 7, and the titers increased rapidly after challenge-exposure. Twelve piglets, 3-day-old, were vaccinated with one dose of the vaccine, and 3 each of which were exposed intranasally to the virulent strain on PVD 4, 7, 10, or 14. Non-vaccinated piglets were exposed concurrently. None of the vaccinates exhibited adverse reactions to the vaccination. Two of the 3 vaccinates exposed on PVD 4 died, and the remaining one survived. All of the vaccinates exposed on PVD 7, 10, or 14 were protected, while all of the control piglets developed severe clinical signs and died after challenge-exposure. These results indicate the safety and efficacy of the vaccine.
In order to see a fringe of cryptosporidium (Cr) infection in the past, retrospective histologic examinations were carried out on the bursae of Fabricius from 200 growing layer chickens collected in 1977 and 1978. As a result, Cr infection was recognized in 5% of the chickens examined, suggesting a relatively wide prevalence of the infection for a long time in Japan. Most of chickens with Cr infection in their bursa of Fabricius concurrently exhibited histologic bursal lesions similar to those of infectious bursal disease. This indicates a possible relationship between both infections.
A Japanese black beef cattle in the later stage of pregnancy affected with abdominal hernia, 30 × 40cm in size, was administered 25mg of prostaglandin F2α intramuscularly. Vulvar edema and udder enlargement were observed 28hr after administration, and a normal female calf weighing 24kg was delivered 49hr later. During delivery, the cattle showed neither enlargement of the hernial sac nor weak labor pains. The fetal membranes were retained until spontaneous release 10days after parturition, while the fetid uterine discharge disappeared by 17days postpartum. Early recurrence of ovarian function and favorable uterine involution observed by ultrasonography indicated that prostaglandin F2α successfully induced parturition in a cattle with abdominal hernia.
A three-year-old female cat was presented with a child-fist-sized tumor in the abdominal cavity. The animal manifested clinical signs such as depression, hyperpnea, and subcutaneous edema in the brisket and forelimbs. By laparotomy, this tumor was found occurring well-demarcated in the region of the left kidney which was completely missing (unilateral agenesis). After sugical removal, she did exceptionally well postoperatively, however, almost the same-sized tumor was found on palpation of the abdominal cavity 296days after the operation. She died during the second laparotomy. At necropsy, the large tumor developed in the peritoneum in the region of the left kidny and a few tumor nodules were found in the omentum, mesenterium, diaphragm, and capsule of the right kidney. Histologically, all of the tumors were diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor.
A simple quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of residual sulfa drugs in livestock products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The 12 sulfa drugs were sulfaguanidine (SGD), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfasetamaid (SCA), sulfamerazine (SMR), sulfadimidine (SDD), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), sulfachloropyridazine (SCPD), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), sulfisoxazole (SIX), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), sulfamonomethoxine (SMMX) and sulfisomidine (SID). Livestock products included pork, the liver, urine, serum, and kidney of swine, as well as chicken meat, cow milk and eggs. Samples were deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid. Then, they were extracted with chloroform. The extracted supernatants from the samples were reacted with o-phthalaldehyde, and injected into an Inertsil C-8 (4mm I.D.× 250mm) HPLC column. Sulfa drugs were separated with a solution containing 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile as a mobile phase and detected with a spectrofluorometric detector (EX 285nm, EM 445nm). The recoveries of drugs added to livestock products fortified at 100ng/g (ml) were from 70.0 to 168.0%. The detection limits were 2ng/ml for SMPD, 1ng/ml for SIX and SCPD, and 0.1ng/ml for other drugs. The fraction of (SDD and SDMX) that were picked by HPLC were able to react with the enzyme immunolinked analysis. In an experimental SDD administration to swine, the SDD concentration in the muscles was about 10% of SDD concentration in the urine. Therefore, it was confirmed that the determination of SDD in the urine was a useful indicator for estimating the residual SDD concentration in muscles.
During the period from December 1986 to December 1987, unilocular echinococcosis was detected in some beef cattle imported from Australia at the Obihiro Meat Inspection Center of Hokkaido. Lesions were observed in 94 (2.4%) of 3, 864 cattle. Hydatid cysts were found mainly in the lungs and liver, but a few in the kidneys and spleen. The liver was infected heavily with the lungs being moderately affected. The kidney and spleen were parasitized by a single cyst each. The brood capsules and protoscoleces were found only in the lung hydatid cyst of one animal, while all the others were acephalocysts. The cuticular and germinal layers varied in thickness from 2.5 to 400μm and from 2.5 to 12.5μm, respectively. The cuticular layer was about four times thicker than the germinal layer on the average.