The neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) of six of 5-, 7-and 10-day-old suckling pigs from a sow vaccinated twice after mating with solubilized Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) lyophilized trial vaccine showed 1: 4 to 1: 8 at the time of challenge. All of the suckling pigs survived without nervous signs or virus shedding in their nasal discharge after challenge exposure with virulent ADV (102.0 TCID50). The NAT of six of 1-, 7-and 14-day-old suckling pigs from a sow vaccinated twice before mating and once after mating with the vaccine showed 1: 45 to 1: 178 at the time of challenge. Most of the suckling pigs survived without nervous signsor virus shedding after challenge exposure with virulent ADV (104.0 TCID50). However, one of the 7-day-ol suckling pigs developed nervous signs and virus shedding, and died at 8days postchallenge. ADV was recovered from the submaxillary lymph nodes. All of the Control suckling pigs were found to have virus shedding. Part of the control pigs also showed nervous signs and died between 3-9days postchallenge. ADV was recovered from the tonsils and olfactory bulbus. From these results, it may be expected that most of the suckling pigs from sows vaccinated with the vaccine are prevented from the nosogenesis of virulent ADV.
Vitamin A, E and selenium levels in blood and milk were examined for 25 dairy cows with acute mastitis. At the onset, serum retinol levels of 16 cases (64%), of which 15 cases showing low serum tocopherol levels below 250μg/100ml, were below 100IU/100ml. The most cases with low levels of serum retinol and tocopherol were within 30days after parturition. At 2weeks after the onset, serum tocopherol and retinol levels were not recovered. Retinyl palmitate and tocopherol levels in milk had a high tendency at the onset. Then, cows kept together showed low vitamin A and tocopherol levels in blood and milk, especially cases within 30days after parturition. However, serum selenium levels and blood glutathione paroxidase activities remained within the normal.
Biochemical analyses of the blood and rumen fluid in 5 cows with cecal dilatation and torsion were performed prior to the operation and on the 14th day after the operation. As a result, metabolic acidosis Was observed during the pre-operation period, reversing to normal after the operation. It was suggested that metabolic acidosis may be caused by the decrease in bicarbonate reabsorption in the large intestine.
A basic study was carried out for the determination of the progesterone concentration in milk using the B.E.S.T. test kit. The results obtained are as follows: Milk samples can either be used just after collection or after freezing at below 20°C. There were no significant differences in reaction of coagulation among kits. The average progesterone levels in the negative and positive groups were 10.4±4.6ng/ml and 4.4±3.2ng/ml, respectively. With the T-analysis, there were significant differences (p<0.01) between the two groups. Discriminant analysis revealed that the percent of compatibility between the progesterone level and coagulation was 77.3% and 86.5% at 5ng/ml in the negative and positive groups, respectively. From these results, the B.E.S.T. test kit was proven useful to check the low level progesterone period of the estrous cycle.
An injectable formulation of praziquantel (Droncit® injectable, Bayer Japan Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was evaluated for the anthelmintic effect on cestodes in dogs and cats. Twelve cats inoculated orally with 3 plerocercoids of Spirometra erinacei were divided into 4 groups of 3 animals each consisting of one nontreated control and 3 medicated groups. The medicated groups were injected subcutaneously and intramusculaly with the injectable formulation. One medicated group was administered orally with a tablet of praziquantel (Droncit® tablet, Bayer Japan Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The dosage level was 30mg active ingredient per kg body weight which was determined 20days after infection. The anthelmintic was completely effective against S. erinacei in all medicated cats and there was no difference in the efficacy among the administrating methods. In subsequently executed clinical trials, subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of the injectable formulation completely eliminated cestodes from all treated animals: 36 dogs and 27 cats naturally infected with Dipylidium caninum, 2 dogs with Taenia sp. and 1 cat with Taenia taeniaeformis in a dose of 0.1 ml product (=5.68mg active ingredient) per kg body weight and 12 dogs and 22 cats with S. erinacei in a dose of 0.6ml (=34.08mg)/kg. These results confirm that subcutaneous and intramuscular injections of praziquantel resulted in the same complete efficacy as that by oral administration against cestodes in dogs and cats.
The affected dog was examined the day following the onset of clinical signs suchas abdominal pain and nausea with profuse salivation and no appetite or vigor. Six hr after the first examination, the dog showed vomiting with grdual gloomy condition and pruritus was observed seven and a half hr later. The animal made a gesture of scratching the posterior of the right shoulder joint with its right hind paw. Eight hr later, there were pyrexia and some loss of consciousness. A tentative diagnosis of Aujeszky's disease (AD) was made. Thirteen hr later, heart hypofunction was suspected and blood examination revealed a remarkable increase in CPK, LDH, GOT, ALP, PCV and WBC (neutrophil) and a decrease in β-globulin. Vomiting was noted intermittently, from white frothy to black brown water consistency at the time of death. The animal died 21hr after the first examination. Histopathological, microbiological virological examination were made. The medulla oblongata showed non-suppurative encephalitis accompanied by formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. AD virus was isolated from the lung. Based on the present findings, a diagnosis of AD was made.
The infectivity and growth characteristics of the Toxoplasma (Tp)-K strain isolated from a cat inapparently infected with Tp were studied in cultured PK-15 cells and compared with those of the Tp-RH and Tp-Beverley strains. The Tp-K strain tended to grow slightly slower than the Tp-Beverley strain in the cultured cells. It took 120hr (5days) after inoculation for the Tp-K and Tp-Beverley strains to infect all the cells. On the other hand, the Tp-RH strain showed faster growth and Tp organisms were observed in all the cells within 48hr after inoculation. The Tp-RH formed rosettes in the host cells. Both Tp-K and Tp-Beverley strains formed cysts 6days or more after inoculation, and infected cells were maintained for a long time without being destroyed or detached. The results suggest thatthe infectivity and growth characteristics of the Tp-K strain are similar to those of the Tp-Beverley strain.