Outbreaks of porcine Streptococcus suis infection occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture during the 1988 to 1990 period, and serotype, virulence against BALB/c mice and drug susceptibility of isolates were examined. Eighteen cases of the infection were observed during this period. All of the cases in 1988 were of meningitis. In 1989, both polyserositis and meningitis were identified and in 1990, cases included pneumonia, septicemia, endocarditis and meningitis. Cases of meningitis, pneumonia, septicemia and endocarditis were found in fattening pigs, whereas polyserositis was observed in suckling pigs. Twenty-seven of 36 isolates of S. suis belonged to serovar 2, and the remaining nine isolates were serovar 1 and 4. Twenty-four BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with six isolates of S. suis from various lesions. Isolates from septicemia and leptomeningitis lesions were virulent, while those from serositis and pneumonia were less virulent. The isolates from the nasal cavities and tonsils of clinically healthy pigs had no virulence against mice. The 25 isolates from pathological lesions were highly susceptible to penicillins (PCG and ABPC), but less susceptible to KM and SM. The 14 isolates were resistant to CTC, OTC and TS.
Eleven bovines under 22 months of age showing symptoms of chronic pneumonia were examined by ultrasound to evaluate diagnostic significance. The ultrasonic images of the lung obtained included reverberation and/or acousitc shadow in the healthy lung, air echo pattern in aerated pneumonia, low-level echo pattern in non-aerated pneumonia, and reverberation and/or acoustic shadow in emphysema. Necropsy showed chronic pneumonia in all cases. It was revealed that the diagnosis of chronic pneumonia could be made by detection of a wide-spread lesion of non-aerated pneumonia by ultrasound, which may suggest both a poor prognosis and poor growth rate.
A survey on reproductive disorders of 40 boars fed on pig farms in Saitama, Kanagawa, Chiba, Nagano, Gifu, Miyazaki and Kagoshima prefectures was carried out between 1975-1980. On pig farms in all of these prefectures except Kagoshima, clinical signs such as fever, anorexia, hyperemia and swelling of the scrotum, swelling or atrophy of the testes, palpable enlargement and increased firmness in the head of the epididymis were frequently observed. Semen from these boars exhibited azoospermia (42. 5%), necrozoospermia (25%), asthenozoospermia (20%) and other abnormal properties (12. 5%). The period of onset of the reproductive disorders in the boars coincided with that of the prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as reported in the information published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan each year. In addition, the present seroepidemiologic observations strongly suggested that the reproductive disorders of boars on pig farms in Saitama, Nagano and Gifu prefectures were caused by JEV.
The effects of retinol and a-tocopherol on the bacteriocidal ability of neutrophils obtained from 20 lactating cows were investigated in vitro. After the separation of neutrophils from blood, the nitroblue tetrazorium (NBT)(NBT) reduction test was conducted under the conditions of no addition, retinol addition and atocopherol addition. The highest NBT reduction abilities were obtained at 100 IU/dl of retinol and at 200 μg/dl of a-tocopherol, respectively. This suggests that the bacteriocidal ability of neutrophils from lactatingcowsisinfluenced in vitro by thelevelsofretinol and α-tocopherol.
Eight cows were selected from a high-yielding herd of 40 Holstein dairy cows whose average milk production was 10, 100 kg a year. Milk, blood and rumen samples were collected each month for one year to determine changes in these components in relation to lactation stage. The intake volumes of DM, TDN and DCP were 22.6 kg, 16.1 kg and 2.46 kg respectively, and average of milk production for 305 days, 10, 542 kg in the 8 cows. The components in milk and blood except glucose and NEFA showed peaks at the stage of the maximum lactation. The rumen components clearly differed during dry and lactation stages. These changes at the stage of lactation were within physiological ranges.
A survey on canine Hepatozoon canis infection in the western area of Yamaguchi Prefecture revealed that of the 353 dog sexamined, 28 were infected with H. canis. The infected dogs consisted of 12 hunting dogs and 16 household dogs reared in the mountainous areas of this prefecture. No significant differences were observed in the sexes and ages of the infected dogs. The ticks collected from the infected dogs were Haemaphysalis campanulata, H. longicornis, and H. flava, but no Rhipicealus sanguineus was detected. H. canis infection was also observed in 7 (26.9%) of 28 dogs infected with Babesia gibsoni. These findings suggest that H. canis infection may be widespread in this area.
The use of alkaline phosphatase of neutrophils facilitates medical diagosis since elevated enzymatic activity in leukocytes is associated with bacterial infection. Normal alkaline phosphatase activity of circulating neutrophils in dogs was measured. The positive rate was 57.6 ±12.1% in males and 59.8±9.3% in females. The positive score was 119.1±21.0 in males and 117.6±28.8 in females. An intra-tubular endotoxin stimulation test showed stimulation by endotoxin of 1.5μg to increase leukocyte alkalinephosphatase activity 1.6 times that of intact neutrophils, and stimulation by 3.0 μg to increase activity about 2 times that of the control. In dogs with experimental bacterial cystitis, circulating neutrophil activity had increased markedly when there were clinical signs. The original level was resumed when the signs were no longer evident. Based on the present findings, measurement of leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity would appear to serve as a basis for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases in dogs.
A healthy dog and two dogs with tracheal collapse (TC) were treated using a Gianturco-Wallace type expandable metallic stent (EMS). The EMS was placed through the upper trachea in the healthy dog and at the stenotic site in the two dogs with TC under roentgenoscopy. The general condition of the healthy dog was normal after EMS placement. When the healthy dog was euthanatized after 53 days, the EMS was buried submucously. For the dogs with TC, radiographic examination after treatment revealed sufficient expansion of airway at the stenotic site in both cases, After placement of the EMS, the frequency of coughing gradually decreased and dyspnea with cyanosis disappeared completely. After about a year, however, constriction of the esophagus and recurrence of TC at the caudal site of EMS placement were observed, with death occurring suddenly in both cases. Therapy using an EMS for TC will be simple and extremely effective if materials and expansive force of the EMS can be improved.
Fecal specimens from small birds in pet shops in Miyazaki City were examined for Cryptococcus neoformans from April to July 1990. The isolates were examined for antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity for mice. Out of 69 fecal samples from 30 different species of small birds, 16 (23.2%) of 11 species (36.7%) were positive for C. neoformans. These strains were isolated from 7 of 10 pet shops, and the isolation rate varied from 9.0 to 44.4%. The isolates were sensitive to amphotericin-B and nystatin, but not to griseofulvin. Although pathogenicity for mice was rather low, the organisms were frequentlyrecovered from the organs including the brain even at 20 days following intra-peritoneal inoculation.