Effect of watersoluble thiamphenicol (TP), VII-65, for bovine bacterial respiratory disease was examined, as compared with that of ABPC. TP was administered at 10mg/kg (16 cases), 20mg/kg (25 cases), or 30mg/kg (26 cases) for 3 successive days, and ABPC was at 10mg/kg (16 cases). Temperature was improved significantly (P<0.001 or 0.01) in the all groups, but respiratory rate, vigor and appetite were not improved significantly in ABPC group, and recovery rate in the TP group was higher. From the nasal swabs Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma bovis were isolated from in 14 of 27 (51.9%) and 5 of 27 (18.5%) samples, respectively. The P. multocida isolates were highly susceptible to TP and ABPC, but no M. bovis isolate was sensitive to ABPC.
One hundred and seventy-eight cows with various abomasal disorders were examined for cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiography. Sinus arrhythmia with a significantly lower heart rate was observed in7.3% and 5.4% of cases with the left and right abomasal displacement, respectively. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF)(17.4%) and supraventricular premature contraction (SVPC)(13.0%) was higher in cases with abomasal volvulus than in cases with left abomasal displacement. Cases with abomasal volvulus showed higher voltages of P, S and T waves, which were normalized within 2-3 days of postoperation in accordance with rehydration and recovery of serum potassium level. In AF and SVPC cases, dehydration score and heart rate were higher and serum potassium concentration was lower than in cases with normal sinus rhythm.
In a breeding pig farm 11 animals died acutely showing nasal hemorrhage within 7 days, and 3 autopsycases revealed all the organs including the liver were considerably softened and spongy with numerous gas. Histologically, all the organs were severely necrotized in the presence of gram positive large bacilli, which were identified as Clostridium novyi Type A (Cn-A). The Cn-A organisms were isolated by the CO2 gas jet culture method, and the surviving 19 animals showed indirect hemagglutination titers of 1: 128-512 against the Cn-A isolate. The present outbreak seemed to result from food contamination.
At a dairy farm with 89 heads within a week after a pregnant cow suffered from diarrhea and had abortion, dairy cows became feverish, anorectic, and emaciated, suffering from diarrhea with remarkable decrease in milk yield. Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) was isolated from 4 diseased cases and 9 non-diseased adults, and S. Infantis (SI) was from 1 diseased and 5 non-diseased cases. The isolates were sensitive to many antibacterial agents, and the SH isolates from animals and environmental samples showed the same plasmid patterm, while the SI isolates had no plasmids. The organisms were isolated from many environmental samples but not from nursing cows and feed. Both organisms were not isolated from captured crows.
The cause of abomasal impaction in 13 cows affected with it was investigated. The 12 of 13 cases occured after abomasal displacement. Of 6 cases where abomasotomy was performed, 5 cases without abomasal dilatation recovered and 1 died a day after. The 6 of 7 cases observed during pathological autopsy were treated with surgical correction of abomasal displacement. The pathological findings included patent omasoabomasal dilatation, abomasal dilatation, abomasal ulcer and peritonitis. Histopathologically, tunica muscularis of abomasum were observed diffuse granulation, thrombosis and vacuolar degeneration of smooth muscle. These results indicate that serious abomasal displacement and right-side abomasal displacement with torsion caused functional and organic disorders in the abomasum, leading to patent abomasal impaction.
Twenty-six cataract eyes and 3 nunclear sclerotic eyes from 17 dogs were examined by ultrasonography (USG). USG of all of the cataractous eyes showed echographic changes, and the most prevalent changeswere hyperechostic in the anterior and posterior cortices and nuclear poles. In 4 of 6 immature cataractous eyes the slit-lamp biomicroscopy of cataract area was accorded with echostic changes. In 2 cases cataractous lens increased in thickness, and one eye diagnosed as aphakia, was hyperechoic in the anterior and posterior capsules aligned closely and parallel to each other without showing the normal convex lens shape. Three cases of nuclear sclerosis showed no abnormality.
Sixty young healthy dogs, 1 month to 5 yeas of age, were examined for the brain-type creatine kinase (CK-BB) isoenzyme in serum. CK-BB was higher in younger dogs, decreased with age, and attained the almost constant value of adult dogs at 9 months of age.
Effect of a steam pumping method was evaluated for disinfection of the sandpit (4×6m) contaminated with Toxocara eggs and Escherichia coli, using a modified agricultural soil disinfectant machine. Paper bags containing 20g of sand with 1, 000 T. canis eggs and 105 CFU E. coli were deposited at the center and corners of the sandpit at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50cm in depth. All the Toxocara eggs and E. coli were killed at the points where temperature reached 95°C or over. At the maximum depth of 50cm temperature reached to 95°C at 3 or 4h after starting the treatment.
Recovery of 6 benzimidazole anthelmintics (BIZs) artificially added in pork muscle and liver was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using Shim-pack CLC-ODS. Samples were deprotenized and extracted with acetonitrile, followed by Sep-PaK C18 and then Sep-PaK silica (liver) cleanup procedures, and they were subjected to HPLC with a mobile phase solution containing CH3CN and 50mM NaH2PO4 (35: 65) and detection of BIZs by ultra violet (295nm). Recoveries of the drug from muscle and liver samples containing 1μg/g were 88 to 92% and 81 to 96%, respectively, and detection limit for each drug was 2 to 40ng/ml.
A female five-year-old Holstein cow showed remarkable splenomegaly, petechiae in the kidney and yellowcolored carcasses at meat inspection, and microbiologicaly diagnosed as septicemia. Serum was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography using an internal-surface reversed-phase silica support column revealed jaundice with predominance of unconjugated bilirubin.