Exposure conditions for thoracic radiography using a portable X-ray apparatus were established in 36 healthy cows. The following results were obtained:(1) Radiography using a portable X-ray apparatus with rare earth high speed screens and high speed films revealed clear thoracic images with good quality.(2) The exposure index (I') calculated based on the X-ray intensity (I) enabled to design a table for determination of exposure conditions.(3) The exposure conditions must be changed depending on the body condition score (BCS). Comparing with the exposure conditions of the cow with BCS 3.0, those of the cow BCS 2.5 were approximately 70% and those of the cow with BCS 3.5 were approximately 120% when their chest breadth was the same.
Two Hokkaido native horses for fattening showed fibrous osteodystrophy, characterized by bilaterally symmetrical enlargement of facial bones, low hardness of bone puncture, lameness or stiffness. Serum calcium levels lowered, while inorganic phosphorus and magnesium levels and activities of ALP3 were elevated with markedly high serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. Of two cases treated with Ca, one case showed excess serum calcitonin but the other did not. Serum 1, 25-(OH) 2 VD levels increased obviously though 25-OH-VD concentrations were normal findings. Pathological examination revealed excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts, proliferation of fibrous tissues in the maxilla and mandibula, and hyperplastic enlargement of the parathyroid. The cases were considered to be caused by nutritional hyperparathyroidism after supplying diets with low calcium and high ratio of phosphorus/calcium.
During a period from April to December 1993, abnormal reproduction persisted in a pig farm in Chiba Prefecture, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus was isolated from newborn and weaned piglets. Recurrent outbreaks of the reproductive failure and respiratory disorders had reccured in this farm and the retrospective serology revealed antibody positivity to PRRS virus since 1988. For prevention, breeder candidates were exposed to PRRS virus by penning together with seropositive animals prior to breeding, resulting in improvement of reproduction.
The lungs and tonsils from fatal cases of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) were examined microbiologically. PRRS viruses were isolated from 17 of 20 (85%) lung and 8 of 11 (72.7%) tonsil samples. Of PRRS virus-positive cases, Mycoplasma hyorhinis was isolated from the ten lung samples, while Aujeszky's disease virus was isolated from the lung or tonsil of two cases. From eight lung samples, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, Haemophilus parasuis and/or Pasteurella multocida were also isolated. These results suggested that other viral and/or bacterial superinfection might be involved in fatal cases of PRRS.
An improved general heparinization method based on the calculations for individual laboratory data was compared with the general heparin administration method currently used during hemodialysis. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was measured with hemodialysis on three successive days by means of both methods of heparinization. APTT extended excessively by the customary method, which was applied Yamaguchi's method, whereas the APTT could be extended and was maintained adequately by the improved method based on the calculations in all cases. This means that the improved method of general heparinization evades the overadministration of heparin, immoderateness of extra blood anti-clotting time, and the usage of protamine which is an anti-heparin drug. These findings suggested that the improved method of general heparinization makes hemodialysis safer.
A 5-month-old male mongrel cat showed nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria, subcutaneous edema, hypoproteinemia, and mild hypercholesterolemia, and histopathology revealed glomerulonephropathy characterized by segmental hyalinization of glomerular tufts, increased mesangical matrix and fibrosis. Serologically, FeLV antigen was positive, whereas FIPV antibody titer was less than 1: 100 and FIV and antinuclear antibodies were negative.
According to the HACCP-system sanitation guide, swabs from carcasses and treatment (scalding, prechilling and chilling) water at a poultry slaughterhouse in Hokkaido were examined for bacterial contamination. Carcasses after defeathering showed a mean bacteria count of log103.90CFU/cm2 (3.90CFU/cm2), after change of carcasses with shackles (by employees), after evisceration, after chilling and products of thigh meats showed 4.30CFU/cm2, 4.36CFU/cm2, 3.43CFU/cm2 and 3.95CFU/cm2, respectively. After guidance to produce sanitary products, that (1) sanitizing the gloves of employees every 10th minute, (2) increasing chilling water flow about one and half times and maintaining chlorine concentration above 0.2ppm in chilling water, aerobe bacterial counts efficiently decreased to 3.85CFU/cm2, 2.36CFU/cm2 and 3.23CFU/cm2 in carcasses after change of carcasses with shackles, after chilling and products of thigh meats, respectively.
Behavioral complaints were surveyed by inquiring to owners of 100 dogs and 100 cats. Eighty-two percent of dog owners cited 187 problems including destruction (17.1%), barking (16.0%), aggression toward people (15.0%) and house soiling (13.9%), while 83% of cat owners cited 169 problems including scratching (34.9%), inappropriate appetites (19.5%), intercat aggression (13.0%) and house soiling (11.8%). Seventy-two percent and 45.8 percent of dog and cat owners, respectively, hoped to seek behavioral therapy.