In March 1996, cattle and sheep died one after another in five farms after feeding a lot of Australian oaten hay. The patients had nervous disorders including muscular tremor, opisthotonus and epileptiform seizures as well as elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatin kinase. At autopsy the liver was pale and swollen and histopathology revealed hepatic lipidosis and cerebrocortical edema. The oaten hay concerned contained annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)(10.3 to 15.2%), and corynetoxin was detected from the seeds. After experimental feeding of the contaminated oaten hay the cattle showed clinical as well as pathological signs similar to those observed in field cases.
One stanley (Anthropoid paradisea) and four manchurian (Grus japonensis) cranes dead 2-3 days after the onset of illness, showed multiple focal necrosis in the liver and spleen, hemorrhagic and pseudomembranous enteritis in the small intestine. Microscopically, coagulative necrosis formed in the liver lobules, splenic reticular sheath and the small intestinal mucosa with ulceration. Eosinophilic and/or basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were recognized within hepatocytes, and epithelial cells of the bile duct, renal tubules and ureters, as well as within glandular epithelial cells of the gizzard and small intestine, vascular endothelial cells, nervous and Schwann's cells. Electronmicroscopy revealed a cluster of herpesvirus like nucleocapsids 100 145nm in diameter with electron-dense cores 36-72 nm in diameter within the nucleus and cytoplasm of hepatocytes and vascular endothelial cells of the liver. The findings suggested that the present cases might be due to herpesvirus corresponding to the inclusion body disease of cranes.
Pregnant cows were given a single intramuscular injection of 25 mg selenium and 680 IU vitamin E at 5 or 3 weeks before parturition, and they were examined for nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductivity and mitogenic response of peripheral neutrophils and lymphocytes, respectively, during periparturient period. In those treated at 5 weeks before parturition, the neutrophil NBT reductivity from parturition to 3 weeks postparturition was significantly higher than in the non-treated controls. The lymphocyte mitogenic response at parturition was higher in cows treated at 5 weeks before parturition than those treated at 3 weeks before parturition or the non-treated controls. Thus, a single injection of selenium/vitamin E at 5 weeks before parturition might prevent cows at parturition from impaired NBT reductivity of neutrophils and mitogenic response of lymphocytes.
Leptospira antibody titers were investigated in 2-3 month-old dogs after administration of a vaccine for human use containing killed L. autumnalis (LA), L. hebdomadis (LB), L.australis (LC), and L. icterohaemorrhagiae (LW), comparing with control dogs having received the other vaccine for dogs containing killed LW and L. canicola (LU). In more than 80% of vaccinated dogs antibodies to LW, LA, LB and LC increased in titers. The cases with significant titer increase to LW were similar in rates in both vaccine groups. No abnormal serum biochemical findings were seen in any dogs.
Dermatophytotic lesions were recognized in 14 of 26 cats in a cattery, and Microsporum canis was isolated from all the animals using the Mackenzie brush technique. After 3 weeks of treatment, with itraconazole (5mg/kg, SID) and chlorhexidine shampoo and mopping and spraying of the rooms with chlorhexidine and an antimicrobial agent, skin lesions of affected cats were improved and all cats were shown to be negative for fungal cultures after 14 weeks of treatment. Using an air sampler, however, 4 cats still showed positive fungal cultures, which turned negative after 20 weeks of treatment.
Of a companion chinchilla that fell in collapse and died, Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the major organs and intestinal contents. Pathologically, necrotic enteritis, focal necrosis in the liver, in the renal glomeruli and spleen microvascular thrombosis, meningitis and panophthalmitis were observed, and immunohistochemically, salmonella antigen were detectable in the lesions and bacterial clumps in the kidneys and heart.