To reproduce the swollen head syndrome (SHS), avian reovirus (ARV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were inoculated into chickens with immunosuppression induced by infectious bursa' disease virus (IBDV). Groups of 8 to 9 SPF chickens were inoculated orally with IBDV at 1 week of age and then with ARV at 3 weeks of age by eye drop (instillation), followed by inoculation with E. coli at days 1, 4 and 7 postinoculation of ARV. At autopsy made on 20 days postinoculation of E. coli, although none of the chickens showed clinical signs of SHS, inflammatory and granulomatous lesions were found in the air spaces and middle ears in 2/9, 4/9 and 1/8 chickens. Eight other groups (A-H: 13 to 14 chickens each) were inoculated as follows and autopsied at 4 to 20 days postinoculation of E. coli; group A (uninoculated cotrol), B (E. coli), C (ARV), D (ARV +E. coli), E (IBDV), F (IBDV+E. coli), G (IBDV+ARV), and H (IBDV+ARV+E.coli). Slight swelling of the eyelid was seen in 2 and 3 chickens of groups B and H, respectively. Histologically, the head lesions including slight inflammatory reactions were observed in 3, 2, 1, 2 and 5 chickens in groups B, D, F, G and H, respectively. Subcutaneous cellulitis in the head was observed only 2 and 4 chickens in groups B and H, repectively.
In dairy cows standing up by shifting their center of balance in the anteroposterior direction, the distance of the weight shifting and the time required for standing increased with age. In tethered cows, the weight shifting was restricted by the short stall floor and frontal curve, being forsed to stand up by either shifting the hind legs or sliding. Factors associated with the occurrence of periarthritis were analyzed by quantification II, revealing the involvement of the body length/stall length ratio, the height of the curve, and the tethering method employed.
In a farm with multiple incidences of abortion and stillbirth (above 20%), antibody to Neospora caninum was detected by indirect immunofluorescence in 14 of 17 (82.2%) cows that had recent abortion, 10 of 18 (55.6%) cows without abortion, 3 of 6 calves, and 1 of 3 aborted fetuses. Relapsing abortions occurred in 7 of 14 (50%) seropositive cows, while 23 of 100 (23%) were seropositive without abortion. Aborted fetuses from the seropositive cows had non-purulent encephalitis, myocarditis and skeltal myositis, and N. caninum tachyzoites were immunohistochemically detectable in the lesions of 7 of 10 fetuses examined.
A seven-month-old female dog weighing 7 kg, showed fecal/urinary incontinence and paralysis of hindquarters, and spina bifida was revealed by plain radiography. There was no differece in the silhouette of spinal cord between myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As syringomyelia was shown by MRI, the case was diagnosed as spina bifida cystica (opened myelomeningocele) complicated with syringomyelia.
For evaluation of medetomidine as a preanesthetic medicaion, 21 dogs each were injected intravenously with 0.05 mg/kg atropine plus 0.25 mg/kg droperidol, 5 or 10 μg/kg medetomidine. In all cases, anesthesia was induced by intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg ketamine, followed by intratracheal intubation and anesthetization by nitrous oxide-oxygen-isoflurane or -sevoflurane. The adequate sedative effect and muscular relaxation were induced by 5 μg/kg medetomidine, and the heart rate around 110 bpm and peripheral blood pressure were maintained during surgery, although bradycardia was observed immediately after injection of medetomidine. With premedication of 10 μg/kg medetomidine, vomiting and apnea were notable after intubation, while the end-expiratory concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane during surgery were lowest.
Four dogs and three cats were ovariohysterectomized by a laparoscopy assisted surgery. After pneumoperitoneumtwo and one trocars with canule were inserted at the both lateral sides of abdominal wall and the cranialsite of pubis, respectively. Through the both side trocars, ovarian vessels, suspensory ligaments and mesovariumswere resected ultrasonically under TV monitoring. The treated ovaries and uteri were extractedthrough the caudal trocar and then the uterine body was resected after ligation. All the cases recovered withoutcomplication.
One hundred and eighteen cattle suspected of jaundice and slaughtered in Hyogo prefecture were examined for parameters of diagnostic screening of serious jaundice, revealing that brownish urine, yellowish conjunctivamucosa and reddish critical hepatitis, tar-like bile, brownish bladder urine and higherlevels of urine bilirubin were useful for the screening. Blood samples from the cardiac ventricle taken after slaughtering showed lower levels of total-bilirubin than those sampled before and during slaughtering.
A residual antibacterial was detected from slaughtered swine tissues by a simplified bioassay, and it was suspected of a new quinolone by a classified bioassay and identified as enrofioxacin (ERFX) by TLC-microbioautography. The residual ERFX was also identified by HPLC with fluorescence and photodiode-array detectors. The content of ERFX was 0.33μg/g of the cervical muscles by HPLC, and the detection limit was 0.001 μg/ml by fluorescence detector.