A smaller dose of equine or human chorionic gonadotropin, eCG (500 IU) or hCG (3, 000 IU), was injected on Day 7 of the estrous cycle in Japanese Black or Holstein cows; 13 cows for eCG, 13 cows for hCG and 14 cows for control and they were inseminated at estrus and examined for blood progesterone levels and morphology of the ovaries by rectal palpation on Days 0, 5, 7, 14 and 21 of the estrous cycle. Two cows of each group were examined for the diameter of corpus luteum by ultrasonography. The conception rates of the eCG, hCG and control groups were 61.5%, 46.2%, and 35.7% respectively, while difference was not significant. Blood progesterone levels were significantly higher in the pregnant cases treated with either eCG or hCG on Days 14 and 21 as compared with non-pregnant controls (P<0.05), and small sized follicles and accessory corpora lutea appeared on Day 14 in the eCG and hCG treated cows with significantly increased diameter of corpora lutea. The results suggested that a smaller dose of eCG or hCG administered on Day 7 of the estrous cycle enhances the luteal function and consequently improves the pregnancy rate in cows.
The relationship between outward rotation of the hind feet and subclinical sole lesions was analyzed in 117 lactating Holstein cows housed in free stall. The outward rotation of the hind feet was visually classified as score 1 (none to slight rotation) and score 2 (moderate to severe rotation), and the degree of external rotation, dimentions of medial and lateral claws and subclinical sole lesions of the right hind feet were measured. The prevalence and severity of hemorrhage in the sole were higher in the lateral claws with rotation score 2 than those with rotation score 1, while the dimentions of the medial and lateral claws were not different. The results suggested that moderate to severe rotation of the hind feet might be related to prevalence and severity of hemorrhage in the sole of the lateral claw of the hind limb.
Three calf cases of cyclopia were experienced in Kagoshima during 1982 to 1991. Two were of Japanese Black with prolonged gestation and one was of Holstein with premature birth. All the cases were small showing severe hypotrichosis, and the limbs were either over-extending or mildly malformed. A sigle orbit with one or two-fused eyeballs was located in the median face. The nose and upper jaw were lacking, and the incisors were covered with gingiva. The hypoplastic skull had large cranial fontanelles and the cerebral hemispheres were mostly absent, with a rudimentary pituitary glands. In Kagoshima there was no population of Veratrum album, which was suspected as a causative agent, and the cause of these cyclopia case sremained unknown.
A total of 1, 275 adult dogs aged over 1 year were investigated for nematode in the digestive tract. While no parasites were detected in the indoor kept 354 dogs, 95 of 834 (11.4 %) outdoor dogs were shown to have parasites, and the Tosa breed dog showed a higher parasitic rate of 37.9 %. The most frequent parasite was Trichuris vulpis, and only a few cases were of Ancylostoma caninum except for a high frequency in the Tosa breed. Toxocara canis was detected from a few 1-year-old cases. The parasitic rate was higher in males than females and was markedly higher in 3 to 4-year-old cases as compared to 1-year-old cases.
A combination of ELISA and the ether-extraction method was used to quantify red-blood-cell-bound (RBC-bound) IgG, IgM, and C3. In clinically healthy dogs, absorbance of RBC-bound IgG was 0.098±0.029, that of IgM was 0.028±0.007, and that of C3 was 0.08±0.031. The combination method we employed was capable of detecting changes in RBC-bound IgG and C3 in a dog made anemic by an injection of phenylhydrazine hydrochloride. Levels of RBC-bound IgG and C3 were higher in 6 of 8 dogs suspected of having immune-mediated hemolytic anemia than those in healthy dogs. Levels of RBC-bound IgG and C3 increased in 2 dogs suspected of being pemphigous as well. In mildly anemic dogs with tumors, however, values of RBC-bound IgG, IgM, and C3 were distributed in the top limits for clinically healthy dogs.
Intradermal skin tests (IDST) and measurements of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (serologic tests) were performed on 60 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 53 pruritic dogs without AD. Dogs with AD showed positive reactions to fleas in 40.0% of cases examined, to house dust mites (mites) in 96.7%, and to pollen in 18.2%. Serologic tests on the same animals produced positive reactions to fleas in 13.3% of all cases, to mites in 83.3%, and to pollen in 33.3%. IDST on pruritic dogs without AD showed positive reactions to fleas in 15.1% of all cases, to mites in 5.7%, and to pollen in 6.7%. Serologic tests on the same animals showed positive reactions to fleas in 9.4% of all cases, to mites in 23.7%, and to pollen in 6.7%. According to IDTS results, 85.5% of dogs with AD reacted positively to the mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and 29.6% to the mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). Serologic tests showed that the corresponding percentages were Df 83.3% and Dp 22.2%. According to the results of IDST, 7.9% of pruritic dogs without AD, reacted positively to Df and 0% to Dp. The corresponding percentages were Df 23.7% and Dp 7.9% in serologic tests. The findings of this study indicate that the mite is the most significant antigen associated with canine AD and that Df is the most common variety in Japan.
From 1992 to 1998 158 swine cases from Miyazaki, Oita, Kumamoto and Kagoshima prefectures, were diagnosed pathologically as atypical mycobacteriosis at meat inspection centers in Miyazaki Prefecture. From these cases 121 strains of mycobacteria were isolated. According to the biochemical properties, and PCRrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), multiplex PCR or DNA-DNA hybridization tests, 114 isolates were identified as M. avium, while 4 as M. terrae and 3 as M. gordonae.