Through 10 days after oral inoculation of 104 spores of Clostridium botulinum type C, 14-day-old broilers (6 chicks/isolator) showed no clinical signs and they were negative for the microbes in their cecal content. The carrier state failed to be induced after inoculation with 107 spores into broilers (10 chicks/isolator) fasted for 3 days prior to inoculation, and the same results were obtained in day-old chicks. In day-old chicks (10-15 chicks/isolater) reared without litter, however, the organisms were isolated after inoculation of 105 spores from 14 of 15, 10 day-old chicks as well as from 17 of 19, 20 day-old chicks. On the other hand, no organisms were isolated from any 14-day-old chicks (5-15 chicks/isolator) reared without litter and starved for 3 days. When pretreated with endoxan before inoculation all chicks (5 chicks/isolater) under the same conditions were shown to carry the organisms in the cecum and two of them died with typical signs of botulism. Endoxan pretreatment induced the carrier state also in all 24 day-old chicks (6 chicks/isolator), and 4 of them were diseased and died. These results suggested that management stresses and intesinal flora were involved in colonization and pathogenesis of C. botulinum type C.
Milk total protein (crude protein; CP), casein, whey, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), urea-N (MUN) and plasma glucose, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) of 134 pair milk and blood plasma samples from 45 dairy cows were measured. Negative correlations were observed between casein and whey as well as between whey and NPN, and there was no correlation between casein and NPN. Whey proportions in CP were higher in the samples with lower MUN levels. The MUN/NPN ratios were higher with increasing MUN levels. Higher MUN levels were observed in many samples with lower plasma acetate or 3-HB levels. Plasma glucose, acetate or 3-HB levels were not correlated with the other milk protein fractions.
In 1992, an outbreak of chicken botulism occurred at 3 connecting broiler farms and Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from affected birds and heavy spore contamination was demonstrated in the litter and the soil. In 1993, there was no apparent disease in these 3 and other neighbouring 6 farms, while the type C spores were detected in litter and soil samples from 4 farms including one about 10 km away from the 3 farms having experienced the outbreak in 1992. In the rainy season of 1995, another outbreak recurred in a farm affected in 1992, and most birds were affected while using antimicrobial agents. In other farms with spore contamination, however, there was no occurrence during the same period, and no more disease was observed at a farm with appropriate hygienic control and management after the outbreak in 1992. These observations indicated that the presence of type C spores did not inevitably induce the disease outbreak and that the hygienic control might be of importance for prevention of chicken botulism.
Gingivo-stomatitis was observed in 23 of 323 (7.1%) household cats, including 12 mild, 8 moderate and 3 severe cases. The ages of the diseased cases ranged from 0 to 16 (mean; 6.5) years, mostly from 5 to 10 years, and higher incidences were of Siamese breed (40%), and those fed can type diet (10.9%). Most cases had severe dental plaques-calculi, while some cases had no deposition. In cases with periodontal disease or moderate to severe deposition of dental plaques-calculi, the incidence seemed to be higher. Fifty percents of the cases with gingivo-stomatitis were positive for FeLV antigen, and/or anti-FIV antibody.
Using the flexible alligator forceps (FAF) for Dirofilaria immitis foreign bodies in the upper digestive tract were endoscopically removed in 6 canine cases. Small and hard foreign bodies were removed directly by FAF, and large and soft ones were readily removed by a electrocautery wire-loop by the assistance of FAF.
The preference of 8 cats were examined for 5 types of litters; clumping sand, non-clumping sand, wood powder with hinoki smell, paper sand and silica gel. All cats most frequently used the clumping sand litter characterized by hard-touch, small-sized and dense particles and being odor-free and deodorant. The other 4 type litters were different in individual using frequency and the open litter box was preferred to the covered one.
In July 1996, four outbreaks of gastroenteritis after traveling to Taiwan occurred in Hiroshima, Kochi and Akita Prefectures and Yokohama City and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)-producing Escherichia coli 0169: H41 was isolated from the feces of patients. Seven E. coli isolates from the four outbreaks were of the same serovar producing ST and showing the same plasmid profiles with 97 kb plasmid DNA, and they were identical in RAPD profiles as well as in PFGE restriction fragment patterns except for 1 Hiroshima strain, suggesting that the four outbreaks were due to common meals served at a restaurant in Taiwan.
Salmonella was isolated from 17 (1.5%) of 1, 129 rats captured at 14 restaurants in buildings in downtown Tokyo and from 6 (10%) of 60 rats captured at a fish market in Chiba Prefecture. Seventeen isolates from the restaurants were of serovars S. Typhimurium (6 strains), S. Hadar (5), S. Isangi (2), S. Litchfield (2), S. Enteritidis (1) and S. Senftenberg (1), while 6 isolates from the fish market were of S. Enteritidis (3), S. Litchfield (2) and S. Typhimurium (1). Four strains of Campylobacter were isolated from 3 (5%) of 60 rats at the fish market and identified as C. jejuni (3) and C. coli (1), but no Campylobacter was detected from 545 rats at the restaurants.
For isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from dressed cattle carcass, a combination of 25 mg/l novobiocin added m-EC medium before sterilization, immuno-magnetic separation technique and cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar, was found to be most useful and screening of secondary enrichment cultures after the immunomagnetic separation using an immunoprecipitate assay kit was recommendable as a rapid method. Using these methods, 13 STEC-O157 strains were detected from the cattle feces and equipments, from July 1996 to September 1997 and all of them were found to have the eaeA gene where as only one of 32 STEC isolates without O157 possessed the gene.