The effects of intravenous infusion of hypotonic Hartman's replacement fluids (HG) on plasma volume and acid-base equilibrium were examined. Tests were made twice on 4 heifers. The animals were infused with either 30ml/kg or 60ml/kg of HG at a flow rate of 20ml/kg/hr and were allowed at least 20 days to recover between infusions. After fluid replacement, they were monitored for 270 minutes. At the end of fluid replacement, relative plasma volume (rPV) increased to 122.3±4.1%(t=90) in the animals receiving 30 ml/kg and 129.5±4.7%(t=180) in animals receiving 60ml/kg. No significant difference in rPV was observed between the 2 groups. No significant changes were observed in acid-base equilibrium and serum osmotic pressure in heifers receiving intravenous HG infusions of 30 ml/kg or 60ml/kg. These findings indicate that hypotonicsolution infusions of 30ml/kg or 60ml/kg at a flow rate of 20ml/kg/hr can be administered to cattle.effectively and safely.
Thyroid hormone levels change markedly during the periparturient period. In order to clarify their postpartum recovery times, changes in serum thyroxine (T4), serum triiodothyronine (T3), serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucose levels were measured in 6 clinically healthy Holstein cows. The measurements were carried out over a period of 3 months in the Tokachi District of Hokkaido. Serum T4 and T4/T3ratio started decreasing 2 weeks before parturition and reached minimum values (0.9μg/dland 13.1, respectively) 3 days after parturition. Levels recovered gradually thereafter. Serum T3 (49ng/dl) reached the minimum days after parturition and plasma glucose levels (38.6mg/dl) 3 days after parturition. Thereafter, those levels also increased gradually. Serum NEFA levels started to increase 3 weeks before parturition; thereafter they decreased. These findings show that in healthy cows it takes about 2 postpartum months for thyroid hormone levels to recover.
A 5-month-old Japanese Black calf showing such clinical neurological symptoms as torticollis and opisthotonus was killed for examination. The brain was found to contain Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme in pure culture. Histopathological examination revealed thrombosis, edema, and infiltration of degenerated leukocytes in the cerebral meninges. Perivascular cuffing, composed mainly of lymphocytes, and slight degeneration of the vascular wall occurred in the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Immuno-histochemical examination revealed the F. necrophorum antigen in the brain.
Histopathological examination of a stunted piglet revealed diffuse hepatocytic necrosis and pseudo bile ducts formation together with infiltrations of multinuclear giant cell, macrophage, and lymphocyte in the liver. The immouno-histological method demonstrated the porcine cirocovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of giant cells, macrophages, and Kupffer cells. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of genetic signals specific to the porcine circovirus type 2 (pmws-PCV), which has been suspected of being the pathogen in the post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Electron microscopy revealed circovirus-like particles in macrophage and multinuclear giant-cell cytoplasm. Moreover, the PCR method detected the nucleotide specific for pmws-PCV in the animal's liver and ileum. Although hepatic necrosis and fibrosis have occasionally been observed in animals with PMWS associated with pmws-PCV infection, in this case, the extent of hepatic lesions was more prominent than in previously reported cases. Furthermore, the appearance of many giant cells and pseudo bile ducts was especially remarkable in this piglet.
Quantities and components of milk from 5 Japanese Black cows were examined over a period of 17 postpartum days. During the test period, the dry-matter intake of each cow remained unchanged. From the 2nd to the 16th postpartum day, milk-fat rate was 5.11±1.04%, milk-protein rate 3.80±0.39%, and lactose rate 4.68±0.24%. Average milk quantity from the 5th to the 17th postpartum day was 2.84±0.97 kg. The 5 cows were divided into 2 groups according to milk quantity: the high milk yield group (HMG; 2 cows) and the low milk yield group (LMG; 3 cows). From the 5th to the 17th postpartum days, average milk quantity from the HMG was 4.12±0.92kg/day and from the LMG 2.03±0.31kg/day. For the same period, average TDN fullness rate was 69±14% for the HMG and 113±21% for the LMG. Milk alcohol-test scores for the 4 postpartum days were high in both groups. These scores remainned high throughout the 4 postpartum days for the HMG but dropped off rapidly in the LMG. Individual differences and changes with passing postpartum days were large in milk quantity and components. Changes were unrelated to contentment ratio. Alcohol instability in the milk resulted from a lack of TDN.
The right ovary of a Holstein dairy cow aged 10 years was enlarged to 20×7×7 m. After a presumptive diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor, ovariectomy was performed. An encapsulated abscess was detectedin the mass, and Aerococcus viridans was isolated from the exudate. The abscess may have been causedeither by former surgery for left abomasal displacement or by an intraovarian injector used to treatfollicular cyst. After the ovariectomy, the cow regained a normal estrous cycle and was able to produce good-quality embryos through superovulation treatment.
A caesarian section was performed on a Japanese Black cow 5 months into gestation and suffering froma fetid, purulent discharge. A macerated, partly mummified fetus was extracted. After the operation, for 28 days rectal palpations (three times daily) were frequently performed, and antibiotics and uterine contractile medication were administered to prevent adhesions over the reproductive tract and stimulate uterine involution within the pelvic cavity. Five months after the caesarian section, successful pregnancy was accomplished
An investigation of the incidence of rabbit diseases among clinical cases at an animal hospital in Urawa, Saitama Prefecture from January 1997 to December 1998 showed that, during those 2 years, numbers of cases increased while average age at disease onset and average body weight decreased. The ratio of male to female rabbits affected was 54.7:45.3. Diseases were divided into 8 groups: dermatological, gastrointestinal, dental, ophthalmic, urogenital, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurological (listed in order of frequency). Dermatological, gastrointestinal, and dental diseases all showed high incidence of 20-22%. The great discrepancies between these results and diseases incidences in dogs and cats may be related to differences in sensitivity to microbes and to characteristic rabbit physiological and anatomical features. Prevention and treatment require further study of the diseases with high incidence rates.
Hyposensitization therapy using allergens of house dust mites was performed on 16 dogs with atopic dermatitis. Efficacy evaluations conducted 6 months after initial hyposensitization therapy showed that 4 dogs (25.0%) demonstrated an excellent response, 7 dogs (43.8%) a good response, and 5 dogs (31.3%) a poor response. Overall, the therapy was considered successful in the cases of 11 dogs (68.8%), most of which improved within 1 or 2 months. In short, hyposensitization therapy using allergens of house dust mites proved effective for treating dogs with atopic dermatitis
Several cutaneous tumors were observed on the back and abdomen of a 2-year-old mongrel male dog. On the basis of histopathological, immunohistochemical, cytochemical, and flow-cytometry analyses for cellsurface antigens, the tumors were diagnosed as nonepitheliotrophic, cutaneous, B-cell lymphoma.
A simple, rapid determination method employing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed to determine coumarin rodenticides, including warfarin, coumateralyl, and bromadiolone, in swine kidney and muscle samples. After they were extracted with acetonitrile, the rodenticides were determined by means of HPLC with fluorescence detection using post-column pH-switching techniques. Thirty cases that had been suspected of coumarin poisoning at a meat inspection site in Aichi Prefecture from 1994 to 1998 were examined. HPLC of kidney samples derived from 12 cases showed from 0.005 to 0.080, μg/g of warfarin and 3 cases from 0.002 to 0.030μg/g of coumatetralyl.