The antimicrobial effects and pharmacokinetics of long-acting amoxicillin (150mg/ml) were investigated. Following intramuscular administration of the antibiotic (7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg) to 15 calves, bioassays were conducted to determine serum antibiotic concentration. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for 10 strains of Pasteurella multocida obtained from domestic farms were measured. Clinical effects of the antibiotic on 15 calves with pneumonia caused by Pasteurella were investigated. Results show that intramuscular injections of 15mg/kg or 30mg/kg of amoxicillin every 48 hrs seem to be effective in treating calf pneumonia caused by Pasteurella.
Porcine circovirus (PCV) genes were detected in formalin-fixed pig-tissue samples embedded in paraffin. The tissues came from pigs affected by the postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and demonstrating pathological evidence of PCV infection. The samples were collected between 1993 to 1998 from farms B, C, and D in Hokkaido, Japan, and were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among primers, detection rate of the Nlf and N2r primer set was highest. Of the 35 (85.7%) samples examined 30 were PCR positive. The cleavage sites recognized by restriction enzymes (Ava II andNsp I) in these amplified PCR fragments were missing in the fragment amplified from PCV-1. The Sac I site was present in fragments amplified from the 4 samples from farm D but absent in the 7 fragments from farm C. Although 15 of the 19 samples from farm B had the Sac I site, the remaining 4 samples lacked it. These results suggest that at least 2 types of genetically different PCV-2 exist in Hokkaido.
At the Yamaguchi University Animal Hospital, from 1994 to 1999, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine 41 bovine animals suspected of brain diseases. Nothing abnormal was found in 14 cases. The remaining animals demonstrated the following conditions: hydrocephalus (9 cases), hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia (1 case), cerebellar hypoplasia (1 case), hydranencephaly (10cases), and intraorbital lymphoma (2 cases), intraorbital cyst (1 case), compression of the optic nerve by an intraorbital abscess (1 case), intranasal hemangioma (1 case), and brain-stem abscess (1 case). Three animals suspected of brain diseases but demonstrating no abnormalities in MRI remain alive.
Twenty-four Holstein cows housed in cubicles on one farm and 38 cows housed in three-tie stall on another were divided into 2 groups (P and NP) according to matching parity and calving month. The hoofs of the cows in group P were trimmed from 1 to 2 months before and from 4 to 5 months after calving. The hooves of the cows in group NP went untrimmed. Per-lactation milk production of the two groups was compared for animals accommodated in both housing systems. Among animals housed in cubicles, foot disease appeared in two animals in each group. Otherwise no foot diseases developed throughout the experimental period. Although animals in group P produced more milk than those in group NP (cubicle-housed P: 6, 935 and NP: 6, 456 kg; tiestall housed P: 10, 331 and NP: 10, 095 kg), the differences were not significant. Perhaps the comfort and psychological impact of hoof trimming had no effect on milk production because management conditions at both farms were good.
Isolation of the right subclavian artery was observed in a 2-day-old female Japanese black calf and in a 12-day-old male Holstein calf. In both calves, the brachiocephalic trunk originating from the left aortic arch branched from the left subclavian artery and terminated in a bifurcation into the left and right common carotid arteries. The left ductus arteriosus arose in a normal manner from the aortic arch and joined the pulmonary trunk. The isolated right subclavian artery was connected to the right pulmonary artery by the right ductus arteriosus and passed to the right forelimb. In addition to an isolated right subclavian artery, the Japanese black calf had ventricular and atrial septal defects and an aberrant origin of the paraconal interventricular branch of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. The Holstein calf, on the other hand, demonstrated complete transposition of the great arteries with an intact ventricular septum.
This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of 10% fipronil against infestations of dogs by Otodectes cynotis. After ear-canal cleaning, 3 drops (about 150μl) of 10% fipronil were instilled into the ears of 31 dogs naturally infested with O. cynotis. About 1 month later, the animals were re-examined for evidence of mites in ears that had manifested clinical signs. Treatment with fipronil had eliminated O. cynotis in 29 out of 31 (93.5%) dogs. Clinical signs of otic pruritus and exudate too improved in 28 (90.3%) cases. Except for 3 cases (9.7%) of temporary head shaking when fipronil was administered, no general adverse e th fipronil had eliminated O. cynotis in 29 out of 31 (93.5%) dogs. Clinical signs of otic pruritus and exudate too improved in 28 (90.3%) cases. Except for 3 cases (9.%) of temporary head shaking when fipronil was administered, no general adverse effects were noted. Therefore, because of its efficacy, safety, and simplicity of application, 10% fipronil is recommended for treatment of O. cynotis infestation in dogs.
Combinations of medetomidine (5μg/kg IV) with thiopental (12.5 mg/kg IV; MT, n=50), ketamine (5 mg/kg IV; MK, n=50), or propofol (4mg/kg IV; MP, n=50) were evaluated as premedication and induction for inhalation anesthesia in 150 dogs (ASA Classes I and II, 6.0±4.2 years old). Surgical anesthesia was maintained with 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen-sevoflurane. All dogs became calm and relaxed after administration of medetomidine. Heart rates decreased in 145 dogs (59.7±21.1% of preanesthetic values).Vomiting occurred in 29 dogs. One dog demonstrated signs of pain upon being injected with propofol. After administration of ketamine, convulsions occurred in 8 dogs. An initial period of apnea was observed after intubation in 42 MT, 15 MK, and 15 MP dogs. Controlled ventilation was required for 32 MT and 8 MK dogs. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration during surgery was 1.6-1.7% in MT, 1.9-2.0% in MK, and 2.1-2.3% in MP dogs. During all treatment, heart rate was maintained at approximately 110 bpm and mean arterial blood pressure at between 100 and 120 mmHg. Recovery was rapid and most dogs were extubated within 5 minutes after the end of anesthesia. MT, MK, and MP resulted in smooth induction and rapid recovery from anesthesia in dogs free of severe systemic diseases. Apnea was the most frequently observed side effect.
A comparative study was made for evaluating the detection sensitivity of first PCR and booster PCR for Lep-tospira in canine urine. Heat treatment was used to extract DNA samples from distilled water and canine urine, both containing Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. These samples were then submitted to first PCR. In addition, PCR products amplified by first PCR were used as DNA samples that were diluted (1: 100), centrifuged at 12, 000 rpm, and submitted to booster PCR. In first PCR, minimum numbers of Leptospira were 1.6×103/ml in distilled water and 1.6×104/ml in canine urine. In booster PCR, however, the figure was 1.6×10/ml for both distilled water and urine. This suggests that booster PCR is more sensitive than first PCR. In clinical cases, both PCR assays detected Leptospira in canine urine within one week after manifestation of signs sug-gestive of leptospirosis. This indicates that Leptospira appear in the urine earlier in the course of the disease than had previously been thought. PCR assays of Leptospira in canine urine were shown to be useful in the early diagnosis of leptospirosis.-Key words: antibody, dog, Lettos/ira, PCR, urine.
Scurf, without pruritus, appeared on the body surface, especially the dorsal area, of a 15-month-old castrated Russian blue cat. Examination of feces and skin scrapings revealed two types of Demodex mites. The larger type was 111.6μm in size and had a 49.1μm opisthosoma. The smaller type was 77.4μm with an opisthosoma of 30.9μm. In both types, the opisthosoma end was blunt. Fifty-four days after treatment with Amitraz and Ivermectine, no mites were detectable; and, after 98 days, no scurf had reappeared.
Examinations to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts were performed on 418 chickens bred on 77 farms in Hyogo Prefecture. Fecal examinations using the sucrose centrifugal flotation technique showed 37 samples (8.9%) from 14 farms to be positive for oocysts. Histological examinations were performed on the trachea, duodenum, ceca, rectum, and bursa of Fabricius obtained from chickens that tested positive. Oocysts were observed in 18 of the 33 samples from which we were able to collect the bursa of Fabricius. The oocysts were parasitized on. the mucous-epithelial surface of the bursa. On the basis of size, shape, and parasitizing organ, parasites detected throughout this survey were presumed to be Cryptosporidium baileyi.