Five postpartum Japanese Black cows were first given low-starch feed then 3kg/day of corn silage. As a result of this regimen, all calves showed premonitory signs in the feces 1-3 days following the administration of silage to their dams. The calves contracted aqueous white scours after the dams began eating silage. Total numbers of protozoa in dams' rumen doubled the day after the occurrence of premonitory signs in calves. As to dam blood components, triglycerides increased on the day on which calves demonstrated premonitory signs; and phospholipids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid were high on the day before the calves contracted white scours. On the day on which white scours developed in calves, triglycerides, glucose, and urea nitrogen increased in dams. These findings suggest that change in dams' feed causes blood component changes that influence their milk components, finally resulting in their calves' contracting white scours.
A virus isolated from one of the blood samples collected from sentinel cattle in late summer of 1999, at Omura (32.59 N, 129.58 E), in Nagasaki Prefecture was identified by the cross-neutralization test as the Peaton virus, which belongs to genus Bunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. This virus was first isolated in Australia in 1976. The nucleotide identity of the nucleocapsid protein encoded by the S segment in the present virus differed by 8.9% from that of the Australian virus. But the amino acids of both viruses were nearly (98.7%) identical. A serological survey of the sentinel cattle showed that the virus spread during late summer-between August and November. Seroconversion to the virus was reached in 38.0% of the cattle in November 1999. Retrospective surveillance data indicated that the epidemic of the virus occurred intermittently for several years (1985, 1987, and 1995) during the last 15 years.
The effects of ammonium chloride orally administered to prevent hypocalcemia at parturition in Holstein dairy cows were studied. Ammonium chloride (60g/head/day) was administered to 3 cows for 2 weeks prior to the day of calving. No ammonium chloride was administered to 3 control cows. In the control group, totalcalcium (Ca) and ionized-calcium (iCa) concentrations were significantly lower at parturition (Ca: 6.1±2.6mg/dl, iCa: 0.93±0.40mmol/l) than in the pre-parturition period (Ca: 8.9±0.5mg/dl, iCa: 1.27±0.04mmol/l). In the treated group, on the other hand, no significant changes in Ca and iCa were observed. Urinary pH of cows given ammonium chloride decreased significantly from a pre-value of 8.6±0.3 to 7.5±0.3 at calving. No significant differences were observed between the groups in any serum biochemical parameters other than Ca and iCa. These findings indicate that ammonium chloride (60g/head/day) may be orally administered safely to dairy dry cows to prevent hypocalcemia.
In assessing the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the renal stroma as a marker for predicting prognosis in cats with chronic renal failure (CRF), we analyzed 14 specimens collected by means of percutaneous renal biopsy. Correlation was good (r2=0.619, P<0.001) between the a-SMA expression and the progression rate of renal failure calculated from linear regression using the reciprocal of serum-creatinine concentration (sCr) versus time. After one year of follow-up, correlation between initial sCr and interstitial a-SMA arrived at by multiple linear regression analysis was significant (contribution ratio= 92%, P<0.001). These findings indicate that interstitial a-SMA expression rate is a good marker for predicting prognosis of spontaneous feline CRF.
A 1-year-old Male miniature Dachshund was admitted to the Sanyo Animal Medical Center because of diarrhea and weight loss. Initial physical examination revealed slightly pale mucous membranes and slightly enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Ophthalmic examination revealed mild dilation of the retinal veins. Hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities included anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperproteinemia with monoclonal gammopathy. Abdominal radiographs revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum immunoelectrophoresis showed an abnormal band consisting of IgM. Urine-protein electrophoresis demonstrated a monoclonal spike in the gamma region. Urine SDS-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis identified Bence Jones protein uria. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed macroglobulinemia. On the 12th day of the illness, the dog died of pulmonary hemorrhage.
To investigate the role of the thyroid function in the development of hypothermia in dogs, concentrations of serum total thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4), and the canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) were determined in 12 hypothermic dogs on Hokkaido. On the basis of clinical signs and serum tT4 concentrations, the dogs were divided into 3 groups of 4 dogs each: A) hypothyroidism, B) euthyroid syndrome, and C) nonlowering of thyroid hormones. Except in the case of group A, no consistent tendencies were observed in underlying diseases [bronchitis, canine distemper, liver disorder, heart failure, renal failure (2 cases), and no underlying diseases (2 cases)]. All 4 of the dogs in the hypo-thyroidal group showed a lowering of the fT4 level. In 2 dogs, in group B, however, fT4 decreased, and cTSH was in the low-normal range. These results suggest that measurements of fT4 and cTSH can be useful in examining hypothermic dogs.
In conjunction with other meat-inspection topics, investigations were made of the parasitic hepatitis and roundworm infection in 46, 071 pigs (90 100 days old) on three farms in the southern part of Hokkaido between November 1995 and December 1996. Rates of parasitic-hepatitis emergence differed greatly among the three farms. In addition, changes occurred from week to week, but weekly changes on one farm failed to coincide with those occurring on either of the other two. Correlation was observed between rates of parasitichepatitis emergence and infection with pig roundworms. There was no correlation, however, between parasitic-hepatitis emergence rate and numbers of roundworms or white liver spots. A pig roundworm body width of more than 4 mm indicated female sexual maturation and is considered effective as a mean of discriminating roundworm sex.