The feed of 5 postpartum Japanese Black cows was changed from a low-starch ration (day 0) by the addition of 3kg per day of dent- corn silage. As a result of the change, calf fecesbegan showing preliminary signs' of scours between day 1 and day 3. Between day 5 and day 7, these calves suffered from watery white scours. Fat percent in the dams' milk increasedon the morning of the day on which preliminary symptoms developed and on the day on which scours appeared. Total Ca and Mg concentration in all dams' milk was high on the last evening of the preliminary-symptoms period. Milk pH changed remarkably on the day prior to theappearance of white scours. Palmitic and stearic acid in milk fat increased 1 day prior tothe appearance of white scours. Triglyceride and free fatty acid blood levels in calves were lower on the preliminary-symptoms day but returned to original levels 1 day prior to the appearance of white scours. It seems that calf white scours may be associated with lowered fat absorption in the digestive tract resulting from changes in dams' milk constituents. Further, these changes in dam milk constituents may have resulted from changes in the dams' rations.
The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of replacing the second GnRH with hCG (GnRHPGF2αhCG) in Ovsynch used for timed AI in cows. In the firstexperiment, Holstein cows were divided into 3 groups according to post-estrus day: day 5-6, day 10-11, and day 15-16 (n = 5 for each group). In each group, ovulation was highly synchronized in cows treated with GnRH-PGF2α-hCG (hCG: 3, 000 IU). In thesecond experiment, Holstein cows were randomly divided into 2 groups and each cow was treated with either GnRHPGF2α-hCG (n=42) or Ovsynch (n=41). Conception rates were 52.4% for cows treated with GnRH-PGF2α-hCG and 51.2% for cows treated with Ovsynch. It was estimated that replacisng GnRH with hCG for ovulation synchronization saved \703 per cow and Y1, 533 per conception. These results show that ovulation synchronization and timed AI for dairy cows can be performed without conception-rate reduction and at lower costs by replacing the second GnRH with hCG in Ovsynch.
We used scanning electron microscopy to examine anterior lens-capsule surfaces in 8 cases of canine cataract surgery. In all cases, punctuating, filamentous, or reticular substanceswere found adhering to the anterior lens capsule. Degree of ciliary injection observed at initial medical examination correlated significantly with substances found adhering to theanterior lens by scanning electron microscopy. After medical therapy, however, degree of ciliary injection no longer correlated significantly with substances adhering to the lens capsule. Those substances, which seem to be intraocular exudates, may be related to ciliary injection at initial medical examinations associated with cataract.
The effects of droperidol 0.25mg/kg IV without butorphanol (Group A, n=41) or combined with butorphanol 0.0125mg/kg (Group B, n=41), 0.025mg/kg (Group C, n=40), 0.05mg/kg (Group D, n=41), 0.1mg/kg (Group E, n=43), or 0.2mg/kg (Group F, n=41) N were evaluated as premedication before inhalation anesthesia in 247 dogs. Surgical anesthesia was induced by ketamine5mg/kg IV and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide-50% oxygen-sevoflurane. All dogs calmed down and relaxed and demonstrated moderate sedation after premedication. Butorphanol produced dose-dependent enhancement sedation. The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane during surgery varied between 2.0 and 2.3% with no significant differences among groups. Body temperature during surgery was approximately 37.7°C in group A and 36.5 37.3°C in groups B, C, D, E, and F. Throughout surgery heart rate and partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 were maintained within normal limits for dogs (approximately 110-130 bpm and 30-40mmHg). Shallow breathing occurred during surgery in 5 dogs in Group A, 6 dogs in GroupB, 7 dogs in Group C, 9 dogs in Group D, 16 dogs in Group E, and 13 dogs in Group F. Hypotension occurred in 8 dogs in Group F. Recovery from anesthesia was rapid, and most dogs were extubated by 10 minutes after cessation of anesthesia. The combination of butorphanol enhances sedation. It did not, however, enhance analgesia sufficiently to reduce the sevoflurane concentration necessary to anesthesia maintenance. Combination with 0.1 0.2mg/kg of butorphanol may induce respiratory and circulatory depression during inhalation anesthesia. We therefore recommend combining 0.25mg/kg of droperidol with 0.0125-0.05mg/kg N as premedication for inhalation anesthesia in dogs.
To prevent the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) into Japan, we examined chicken imported from China for viruses. For virus isolation, we used embryonated chicken eggs and a total of 473 samples of frozen meat and bone marrow collected between June 2001 and July 2002. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from 11 (2.3%) specimens and the avian influenza virus (AIV) from 13 (2.7%) specimens. No HPAI virus was included. On the basis of pathogenicity-index tests, all of the NDV isolates were identified as velogenic strains with112RRQKR-F117sequences at the F-protein cleavage site, as is typical of virulent NDV strains. As a result of phylogenetic analysis basedon the F gene, all NDV isolates were classified as belonging to genotype VII, which is prevalent mainly in East Asia and is especially closely related to strains prevalent in China. All AIV isolates were identified as H9N2 subtypes. Intravenous inoculation tests using 3AIV isolates showed no disease symptoms in chicken. Phylogenetic analysis based on the HA gene showed all AIV isolates to belong in the cluster of isolates found mainly in chicken from China.