Of 139 head of dairy cattle in the close-up stage, 58 were given oral drenches (500ml) of propylene glycol (PPG) once daily for at least 3 days before parturition (PPG group). Incidences of periparturient diseases (ketosis/fatty liver, parturient paresis/milk fever, displacement of the abomasum, retained placenta/metria, and clinical mastisis) in this group were compared with-those in the remaining untreated 81 head (untreated group). Incidence of periparturient diseases in the PPG group was considerably lower (32.8%) than in the untreated group (56.8%). Clinical mastitis showed the greatest decline in incidence. The preventative effect of PPG on periparturient diseases was significantly greater in cattle for which results of tests on blood sampled during the close-up period showed a total cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dl or a urea-nitrogen level of less than 8.0mg/dl. These results suggest that administration of PPG in the close-up stage is effective in preventing periparturient diseases.
Biochemical and pathological examinations were made of a 4-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow that had been significantly obese during the late-and non-lactating periods and had demonstrated such clinical abnormalities as anorexia, depression, and unsteady gait since the pre-parturition stage. Sera analyses disclosed markedly increased NEFA concentration from 19 days prepartum (d pre) to 70 days postpartum (d post) and severely decreased apoB-100 from 12 d pre to 20 d post. Elevated enzyme-activity levels were found in AST, LDH, LDH isozyme 1-3, and GGT from 1 d pre to 20 d post. Macroscopically, the liver showed hardening and an obvious lobular architecture on the cut surface. Histologically, central nervoussystem (CNS) lesions were characterized by spongy degeneration in the white matter and altered astrocytes in the gray matter. Pronounced former lesions appeared in the corpus striatum, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Severe fatty degeneration of the hepatocytes accompanying fibrosis was observed. An extended period of severe hepatocellular fatty degeneration appeared to cause the CNS lesions.
A tumor the size of a child's head surgically excised from the left ovary of a Japanese Black cow was confirmed to be dysgerminoma. A month after the excision, when the cow was slaughtered, a granulosa-cell tumor was detected in the right ovary. The occurrence of two kinds of ovarian tumors in one cow is very rare.
Various investigations for prescribing exercise regimens for sled dogs in Japan suggested the animals should be divided into groups according to things like age: older or younger than five. It was also suggested that factors like lactate threshold and acid-base balance are useful for setting individual-dog per-session exercise loads and that a second session might prevent over-exercising. PRESCRIPTION DIET® a/d (a/d) high-fat, high-protein supplements were added to ordinary feed in some cases.In the supplement group compared with animals not fed the supplement, no significant Post-exercise rise in AST was obcerved, and HCO3 and PCO2 recovery was fast. Some anxiety was felt, however, about giving excessive electrolytes because of a rise in plasma osmotic pressure associated with a rise in sodium and chloride after a/d supply unrelated to exercise load. In addition, the need for an ample supply of water was indicated.