A serological survey of the Aino virus (AINOV) conducted from August to October 2002 in Okayama Pre-fecture showed seroconversion to the virus in 79.6% of the sentinel calves and 90% of the farms examined. AINOV infection from early August 2002 to late March 2003 caused 29 cases of 77 abnormalities. Six fetuses were aborted, 10 calves were stillborn, 4 calves were premature, and 9 calves had congenital defects. Viruses were isolated from blood obtained from 5 sentinel calves in late August 2002 and from the cerebrum of an aborted fetus in early October 2002. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis resulted in the diagnosis of an animal aged 24 months as AINOV infected. Abortions were more numerous and congenital abnormalities occurred at an earlier state of AINOV infection in this epidemic than in earlier ones. This is the first report to describe AINOV as a cause of encephalitis in naturally infected cattle.
To isolate the non-cytopathogenic bovine viral-diarrhea virus (BVDV) from serum specimens obtained from cattle persistently inftcted with it, we evaluated a new rapid assay using the bovine kidney-cell line (MDBK-SY) and a serum-free culture medium. Serum specimens (0.01ml) were inoculated with 0.19ml of MDBK-SY cell suspension and cultured for 8days. On the fifth day after inoculation, the cytopathic efftct (CPE) was observed in 19 serum specimens obtained ftom cattle persistently infected with the BVDV (102.5-105.1 TCID50/ml). Only 3 of 1, 510 field serum specimens induced the CPE. We therefore conclude that this assay is useful in identifying cattle infected with BVDV from a large number of specimens.
Fifty-five beagle dogs (36 males and 19 females) were evaluated for standard values for morphological and functional parameters of echocardiogram. The dogs showed normal cardiac functions by electrocardiography, and were free of canine heart worm infection. M-mode, B-mode and Doppler imaging were employed. The date of 52 measurement points from the dogs indicated that most of the points in M- and B-modes correlated statistically with body weight. There were significant differences between males and females. These data enabled us to establish conversion formulas for males and females respectively from any value of body weight to standard values of cardiac morphological and functional parameters.
On the basis of clinical and pathological examinations, paraquat poisoning was diagnosed in the cases of two dogs that died after vomiting and respiratory insufficiency for several days. Histological examination revealed hemorrhage and edema in the alveoli, diffuse fibrosis of the alveolar walls, and formation of hyaline membranes in the lung. Extensively proliferating bronchiolar epithelial cells and epithelial cells in the alveolar area around the bronchioli were associated with cell-arrangement continuity. Immunohistochemically, the bronchiolar epithelial cells were positive for cytokeratin; and the alveolar epithelial-cell nuclei were positive for 8-OHdG, which is one of the most commonly used markers for evaluating oxidative stress. These findings suggest that, in cases of paraquat poisoning, pulmonary-tissue damage is induced by oxidative damage caused by free radicals and that bronchiolar epithelial cells play an important role in repairing pulmonary tissue when alveolar epithelial cells have been especially affected.-K
We observed helminth fauna in fish purchased at a supermarket in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, between Jai uary and April, 2004. Seven fish species were examined: Arctoscopus japonicus, Colobabis saira, Sardinol melanostica, Engraulis japonica, Theragra chalcogramma, Scomber japonica, and Todarodes pacificus. Anisak larvae were detected in 5 species: 100% of S. japonicus, 89% of T. chalcogramma, 45% of T. pacificus, 35% of A. japonica, and 2% of E. panonica. No Anisakis larvae were detected in C. saira and S. melanosticta. Most la: vae obtained from these fishes were Anisakis type I and type II. Pseudoterranova types A and B were detec ed in a small number. Nybelinia sp., Tentacularia sp., Rhadinorhynchus sp., and Parahemiurus sardiniae were found in E. japonicus and S. melanosticta.
Prevalence of 5 anti-Leptospira-interrogans serovars-(icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hebdomadis, australis and canicola)- in stray dogs in 4 Osaka regions (Minou, Shijounawate, Fujiidera and lzumisano) was investigated between September 2002 and July 2003. Of the 87 dogs surveyed, 46 (52.9%) had antibodies against one or more of the serovars. No significant differences were noted between males and females. Antibodies against 4 serovars (icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hebdomadis and australis) were detected. None against canicola were observed. These prevalences may reflect failure to vaccinate stray animals in Osaka Prefecture.
Two dwarfed kidneys with scattered foci of grayish-white lesions from a slaughtered head of Japanese Black cattle 59 months old were submitted to pathological examination. Masses of immature and abnormally shaped renal tubules were scattered throughout the cortices and medullae of both kidneys. Immature mesenchymal tissues and myxomatous tissues had proliferated in the tubulointerstitial tissues of the lesions. Some glomeruli were immature. These findings led to a diagnosis of renal dysplasia. The animal lived to be 59 months old because the dysplastic lesions were localized and all other renal tissues were practically normal.