Investigations of blood-component changes and therapeutic effects produced in cows with subclinical and clinical ketosis by orally administered glycerol showed that glucose and free glycerol concentrations increased at 0.5 hrs after single oral administrations of 500ml, 1, 000ml, and 2, 000ml and that, from 0.5 to 6 hrs and at 24 hrs after administration, these levels were significantly higher than they had been before administration. Serum concentrations of β hydroxybutyric acid decreased from 4 to 6 hrs and at 24 hrs after single glycerol administration. One or two days after initial administration, appetite and rumen movement were restored in 10 of 20 ketotic cows kept on a daily dose of 1, 000ml of glycerol for three days. Ketone bodies disappeared from the urine three days after initial administration. These findings suggest that oral administration of glycerol may have a therapeutic effect on ketosis.
This study was performed to investigate the relationship between percentages of cured cows and antimicrobial treatment of clinical coliform mastitis among dairy cows at 53 livestock clinics on Hokkaido, Japan. The percentage of cures varied from 66.24% to 92.70% and was negatively associated-with the frequency of systemic antimicrobial admmistration (r=-0.37, P<0.01), systemic fluoroquinolone administration (r=-0.28, P<0.05), and average number of intramammary injections of 150mg cefazolin (r=-0.45, P<0.01). It was positively associated with the average number of intramammary injections of penicillin-G-procaine (300, 000 U) +dihydro-streptomycin (300mg)(r= 0.38, P<0.01). The notable difference in cures among livestock clinics may result from differences in antimicrobial administration.
To examine growth-hormone (GH) secretion, we conducted two tests: a test of the factor stimulating growthhormone (GRF) release and analysis of 10-hour GH secretion. In normal cattle, plasma GH concentration increased rapidly after stimulation with the GRF then decreased. But, in some cattle, concentration curves separated into 2 peaks.Some cattle with retarded growth showed high concentrations of plasma GH, whereas others demonstrated little or no response. In normal cattle, plasma-concentration curves manifested large individual differences.Analysis of 10-hour GH secretion showed that, in normal cattle, GH varied in a pulse-like fashion and was less than 10ng/ml. Baseline concentrations, peak amplitudes, and areas under the plasma concentration curve (0-10 hours) were lower in cattle with retarded growth than in normal cattle. These results show that 10-hour GH secretion analysis is useful for the kinetic study of GH secretion in Japanese Black cattle.
Between September, 2001, and March, 2002, the presence of intestinal parasites was investigated from fecal conditions of 1, 535 puppies brought from 214 breeding kennels to determine their state of health before their being shipped to pet shops. They were of 53 breeds, and their mean age was 44 days. Of the 1, 535 puppies, Toxocara eggs were detected in 90 (5.9%) and Isospora oocysts in 39 (2.5%). Ancylostoma and Strongytoides eggs and Giardia trophozoites were detected in some. Feces were abnormal in 51 of the 134 dogs with intestinal parasites. The feces of 15 of the 87 (17.2%) dogs that excreted only Toxocara eggs were soft, diarrheic, and/or bloody. The feces of the 25 of the 36 (64.9%) dogs excreting only Isospora oocysts were soft and/or bloody. The feces of 238 of 1, 401 dogs witnout intestinal parasites were abnormal. Nine of them were positive for the canine parvovirus antigen.
Heart-rate variability (HRV) induced by the Aschner eyeball-pressure test was analyzed in 7 adult dogs. Ocular compression (OC) used was 95 g/cm2, and duration was 20 seconds. Average, standard deviation (SDR-R), coefficient of variance (CVR-R) of the RR interval (RRI) of electrocardiogram, and beat-to-beat instantaneous heart rates (IHR) were used as indices for HRV. The RRI time series (RRITS) was divided into short-term (STTS) and long-term time series (LTTS) by means of a 13-point simple moving average method. The mean cycle of STTS correlated closely with that of the respiration curve (r=0.974), indicating that the STTS reflects respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). No HRV variables in the STTS changed significantly, but SDRR and CVR-R in the RRITS and CVR-R in the LTTS increased significantly (P<0.05) as a result of OC. Therefore, OC-induced parasympathotonia may reflect on CVR-R of the RRI in dogs with RSA. The maximum physiological bradycardia caused by OC was-10.4±3.4 beats/min (-13.1±5.0%) compared to the mean IHR one minute before compression. On the basis of the 95% confidence interval of bradycardia (-12.9-7.8 beats/min)(-16.8-9.4%), we concluded that the hyper-reflexia of this test as applied to dogs represents a drop in heart rate of 17% or more.
Single oral administeration (45 mg per head) of levamisole hydrochloride successfully treated a case of feline cystitis possibly caused by capillarids infection. Clinical signs improved, and parasite eggs had disappeared from urine 9 days after treatment. Ivermectin treatment was ineffective.