To evaluate the progesterone-secreting function of the corpus luteum objectively, ultrasonographic measurements were made of the luteal-tissue area and the central luteal cavity; and progesterone concentration (P4) was determined by means of enzyme immunoassay 8 10 days following estrus. Observation of the corpus luteum in 153/154 cows showed plasma P4 concentration of more than 1ng/ml. These concentrations were lowest when the luteal-tissue area was less than 3cm2 and grew higher as that area increased. The presence and size of a central luteal cavity exerted no influence on either plasma P4 concentration or luteal-tissue area. These results suggest that ultrasonographic measurement of the corpus-luteum area is useful in assessing progesterone-secreting ability.
As simplified methods of measuring rumen ammonium nitrogen (R-NI-13-N), we used the reagent for blood ammonia (NH3-kit), the reagent for serum urea nitrogen (BUN-kit), and the reagent for dry-type blood autoanalyzer (Drychem). The compared measurements made with them and those made with the conventional steam-distillation method. Even when operation error of the sample dilution was included, the coefficient of variance for the Drychem R-NH3-N measurement was 2.86%. This constitutes adequate reproducibility. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (r=0.978) was observed between Drychem and steam-distillation R-NI-13-N measurements. Moreover, the two sets of values approximated each other. Significant (P<0.001) correlation was observed between R-NE13-N measurements obtained with steam-distillation and Drychem R-NE13-N and BUN-kit (r=0.991) and NH3-kit (r=0.961) R-NH3-N measurements. But values obtained with NH3-kit were more than 2 times higher than those obtained with Drychem. From these results, we conclude that Drychem and BUN-kit are practical and useful simplified methods of measuring R-NH3-N.
Our basic study on the usefulness of the collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug-sensitivity test (CDDST) showed that canine mammarygland tumor cells can be cultured well in collagen gel droplets. With this method, we employed five kinds of anticancer drugs-adriamycm, 4OH-cyclophosphamide, vincristine, 5-fluorouracil, and predonisolone-against tumor cells. An image-analysis system was used to analyze their in vitro anticancer activities. We found that anti-cancer drug efficacy against canine mammary gland tumors differed from dog to dog. The CD-DST method can be applied to canine tumors and may be an index for so-called custum-made therapy.
Glucocorticoid therapy resulted in long-term clinical remission in a 4-year-old female Chihuahua with granulomatous meningoencephalitis. A 2-week therapy regimen using dexamethasone improved such initial neurological symptoms as ataxia, tetraplegia, spasticity in the right side of body, leftward head-tilt, and nystagmus. Subsequent oral administration of prednisone (0.2-0.5 mg/kg every other day) sustained clinical remission for 2 and a half years. But severe motor dysfunction, seizures, occurred 2 years and 8 to 9 months after the start of therapy. Poor prognosis ultimately led to humane euthanasia. Pathological examination revealed reduction of the left cerebellar hemisphere accompanied by marked meningeal thickening. On the basis of histopathological features, the dog's condition was diagnosed as disseminated granulomatous meningoencephalitis.
Working with a male dog with unilateral perineal hernia, we invented a novel system of reconstructive surgery of the pelvic diaphragm using the tunica vaginalis communis. After castration, a dorsal recumbency tunica vaginalis communis was resected from the inguinal ring and introduced into the abdominal cavity. It was then transferred to the hernial orifice. After the position was changed to the ventral recumbency, a skin incision reduced hernial content. The sheath-shaped tunica vaginalis communis was then opened to form a fanshaped sheet and was sutured to the muscles of the pelvic diaphragm. Closure was performed in the routine manner. No post-surgical swelling or exudates at the surgical sites were observed, and the patient recovered without problems. The tenesmus and dyschezia observed before surgery improved remarkably. Five years after surgery, no recurrence or complications were observed, indicating that use of the tunica vaginalis communis successfully reconstructed the pelvic diaphragm. Therefore this procedure can be recommended for such surgery.
The specimens of feces or rectal swabs from 303 enteritis patients, 150 animals (110 dogs and 40 cats) and 95 wild birds (75 pigeons and 20 ducks) were examined for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter spp. by using three isolation methods (a modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar [CCDA] method, a cefoperazone amphotericin teicoplanin agar [CAT] method, and a membrane filtration culture [MFC] method). Sixteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained from 303 enteritis patients (5.3% isolation rate) and all were identified as C. jejuni. From 1.8% of dogs and 7.5% of cats, C. jejuni and C. helveticus, respectively, were isolated (low frequency), whereas C. upsaliensis isolates was obtained from 51.8% of dogs and 25.0% of cats (high frequency). In wild birds, C. jejuni was isolated from 29.3% of pigeons, and C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated from 15.0% and 45.0% of ducks, respectively. The CAT and MFC methods were clearly superior to the CCDA method for isolation of C. upsaliensis, but there is no significant difference in these three methods for isolation of C. jejuni. Helicobacter spp. was isolated only by the MFC method. Ten Helicobacter isolates from dogs and cats were identified as H. canis, but the species of one isolate from a wild duck was unknown. This study suggests the exposure of humans to C. upsaliensis (a human pathogen) and H. canis (probably a human pathogen) through animals in central Japan, although no enteritis patient by infection of these two bacteria was found.
Before and after implementation of intensified sanitary control, swabs obtained from workers' fingers, live chickens, carcasses, products, equipment and transport vehicles in a poultry-processing plant were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Isolation rates of S. aureus from live chickens, carcasses and equipment decreased markedly after initiation of sanitary control. In total, S. aureus was isolated from 89 (17.5%) of 506 samples. Various coagulase types, phage groups and antimicrobial resistance patterns were detected in isolates from workers' fingers. The same coagulase types and phage groups were found in isolates from live chickens, carcasses and equipment. The same antimicrobial resistance pattern was found in isolates from live chickens, carcasses and end products. Enterotoxins or isolates producing TSST-1 were detected on workers' fingers and on equipment. Enterotoxin types of isolates from workers' fingers were A (n = 3), B (n = 1), A + B (n = 2), C (n = 1), C + TSST-1 (n = 1) and TSST-1 (n = 1). Those from equipment isolates were A (n = 1) and A + B (n = 3)