In 2003, five heifers and a calf that calved on three different farms, farms A, B and C, within a collective farm, were identified as being persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). To identify the epidemiological links between these multiple occurrences, genetic analyses of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) and E2 gene of the isolates were performed. According to the 5'NCR sequencing, five isolates consisting of four from Farm A and one from Farm C had an identical sequence. Moreover, the 5'NCR sequence of another BVDV isolate (IS17/99) obtained from a different area in 1999 was also identical. The level of identity between the isolates from Farm B and the five isolates was 90.8%. In contrast, a sequence analysis of the E2 gene revealed that the deduced level of amino acid sequence identity of the five isolates was 99.1% to 100%, whereas the identity between IS17/99 and the five isolates was 94.9% to 95.7%. In addition, the level of identity between the isolate from Farm B and the five isolates was only 70.4%. The 5'NCR and E2 gene sequence of the isolate from Farm B were identical with those of an isolate in 1999 from a calf persistently infected with BVDV that calved in the neighborhood, suggesting that the viruswas transmitted from the neighboring farm. This data shows that analysis of the E2 gene isuseful in the epidemiological investigation of field BVDV isolates.
Test kit for detecting fecal Helicobacter pylori antigen was used to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in dogs and cats. Of 30 dogs, only one dog and three human living together in the same house was positive for H. pylori. Of 30 cats, three young cats less than 6 months were positive. Infection of the owners of the cats was not confirmed.
A two-year-old dog with severe neurological symptoms was diagnosed with an aberration of Dirofilaria immitis in the cerebrum as a result of pathological and parasitological examinations. Histologically, multifocal cavitation (worm tunnels), parenchymal necrosis and fresh hemorrhage were found in the frontal and temporal cerebral lobes and in the basalganglia. These lesions were prominent in the right frontal lobe. Considering that the dogwas young and had only three D. immitis worms in the heart, it is suggested that fatal brain damage due to D. immitis aberration may occur when dogs have few chances of D. immitis infestation.
Delayed absorption of cisplatin or carboplatin in local anticancer therapy (CUL therapy) using lipiodol was applied to two cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma, of a dog and a cat. The therapeutic course was good, with a remarkable contraction of tumor size, and the QOL was significantly improved. CUL therapy appeared to be a useful therapy in local anticancer treatment for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma. No systemic side effect was observed in these cases. This therapy was aimed at improving QOL in cases involving the tumor.
The kidneys of six slaughtered Japanese black cattle that were homozygotic with Claudin-16 (CL-16) deficiency were examined pathologically. Three cases showed signs of growth retardation and emaciation, while the other three cases showed no significant clinical signs. All cases had renal lesions showing similar morphological features. Their bilateral kidneys were small with a granulated surface. Histopathologically, in all cases, streaky, focal lesions were scattered from the cortex to the outer zone of the medulla, and the degree of renal lesions were characterized by individual variations. There were small renal tubules and irregularly shaped renal tubules with hypertrophic basement membrane in the lesions. The tubulointerstitium was widened and mesenchymal cells existed in the lesions. The renal abnormality was histopathologically diagnosed as renal tubular dysplasia. In the six cases, the renal lesions and clinical signs were diverse, and it was considered that the symptomsrelated to homozygote for CL-16 deficiency were irregular.
In 2001 and 2004, 91 fecal samples or intestinal contents from pet turtles and lizards imported into Japan from nine foreign countries were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp.Salmonellaspp. was isolated from 56.0%(51/91) of all samples, and 66Salmonellaisolates were identified as subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (59.1%) belonged to subspecies I, and 34 of 66Salmonellaisolates could be identifiedas any of 18 serovars. The predominant serovars were found to be S. Weltevreden, S. Anatum, S. Durban and S. Senftenberg. Five (7.6%) of 66 isolates showed antimicrobial resistance. These results indicate that a significant percentage of pet reptiles carrySalmonellawhen they are imported into Japan.