Phagocytic activity of monocytes derived from cows and calves administered a mixture of plant polysaccharides called C-UP DI was examined by measuring the number and rate of cells that phagocytosed latex beads. The phagocytic activity of monocytes in cows, which had been given 5, 10, 20 or 50g/day of C-UP M for three consecutive days, began to increase at three days after the start of administration and peaked after seven days. Phagocytic activity remained high for two weeks. The extent of these increases in phagocytic activity was similar in cows administered with 10-50 g/day of C-UP III. In calves, C-UP M was administered for 21 consecutive days from the seventh postnatal day, either orally at 3 or 6g/day or via artificial milk formula containing 6g/day of C-UP M. The number of phagocytosed latex beads per cell increased in each of these calves similarly, and it was higher than that ofthe control group at 21 days after the start of C-UP ITI administration. In calves orally administered with C-UP III, the rate of phagocytosis increased from seven days after the start of C-UP III administration and continued to increase at similar rates. When C-UP III was given with milk, the rate of phagocytosis was also elevated but was not as high as that of oral administration.
During the period 1995 to 2005, a total of 32 BVDV isolates were recovered from persistently infected calves and cattle with mucosal disease in Ishikawa Prefecture. All isolates were divided on the basis of phylogenetic analysis into four subgroups. Nine out of 32 isolates (28.1%) were classified as a subtype BVDV-la, while 17 (53.1%) were classified as BVDV-lb. The calculated antigenic similarity (R) among BVDV-1 subgroups and BVDV-2 as revealed by cross-neutralization assay showed significant antigenic differences between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 (0.3-1.1) and within BVDV-1 subgroups (1.0-23.9). A No.12 strain of BVDV-1a, which has been used as a parent strain of Japanese live vaccine showed R values of 0.6, 12.1, 23.9 and 10.2 when compared with BVDV-2, 1b, 1c and 1So, respectively. The data suggested that antigenically different BVDVs from the Japanese representative and the parent vaccinal strain are very widespread in Ishikawa Prefecture.
In a feedlot farm in Hiroshima Prefecture, a 15-month-old Holstein steer died of anemia. An autopsy revealed that a white verruca measuring 7 cm in diameter in the heart was attached to the tricuspid valve. Histopathologically, necrosis, hemorrhage, neutrophil aggregation, fibrinous effusion, and proliferation of gram-positive coccus in the verruca were observed. Gram-positive coccus at 107CFU/g was isolated from the verruca, as a pure culture. The isolated bacteria were identified asHelcococcus ovisbased on the 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical features. On immunohistochemical staining using an antiserum prepared from the bacterial isolate as the antigen, positive reactions were observed diffusely in the verruca. This is the first case in Japan in whichH. oviswas isolated from an ox with valvular endocarditis.
Reference ranges for serum thyroxin (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) in dogs in Japanwere established by measuring the total T4and TSH concentrations in 159 healthydogs using Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay (CLEIA) for canine samples. Reference ranges for free T4 (F-T4) in the same population were established using a Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) system for human samples. The T4and F-T4data were normally distributed and TSH results followed lognormal distribution. The reference ranges were defined as the mean±2SD (log transformed data were used for TSH). The ranges obtained were 0.61-3.30μg/dlfor T4, 0-0.50ng/mlfor TSH and 0.52-1.97 ng/dlfor F-T4.In addition, serum T4and TSH were measured in 33 experimental beagle dogs and 35 patient dogs with severe illnesses. The results indicated subclinical primary hypothyroidism in the beagle dogs and a high rate of euthyroid sick syndrome in the patient dogs.
Two dogs diagnosed with polycythemia caused by either tetralogy of Fallot or atrial septaldefect associated with pulmonic arterial stenosis, respectively, were treated with an antitumor agent, hydroxyurea. The treatment caused a decrease in hematocrit values and improved clinical signs. Although mild transient leukopenia or mild alopecia in the head, trunk and extremities were observed, hydroxyurea treatment was well tolerated. Hydroxyurea treatment was effective in the management of secondary polycythemia, and may be an alternativetreatment to repeated phlebotomy.
The efficacy of intramuscular clindamycin administration was evaluated at a dose of 50mg/kg b. w. b.i. d. for seven days in combination with a hepatic therapy, against severe cases infected withBabesia gibsoni. In the treated group, anemia and parasitemia were improved compaved with those in the control group. In addition, side effects such as damage at the injection site and clinical abnormality were not observed in the treated group. Based on these findings, we conclude that this treatment is useful for severe canine babesiosis cases.
The effect of didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) was assessed in the field on herdsof calves, many of which were suffering from ringworm caused byTrichophyton verrucosum.The disinfectant was sprayed both on the calves and in their barns at Kagoshima University experimental farm once a week starting from November 2004 to January 2005.T. verrucosumwas isolated from the environmental samples and the number and diameter of the ringworms in each individual calf were measured at the commencement of the study. To assess the improvement following disinfection, the measurements were taken again after six weeks of spraying. Among 43 calves present, 30 (70%) had ringworm lesions, mainly on the head and neck regions. In addition, T. verrucosumwas isolated at a high rate from barn structures made up of iron material. Seven weeks following the beginning of the disinfection program, T. verrucosumwas no longer isolated from the environmental samples, while the number of infected calves decreased from 30 to 18 (42%). In conclusion, it was proved that disinfection, using DDAC, of calves and their barns mainly constructed by iron material could be effective in the treatment and prevention of ringworm infection.