To clarify the utility of immunity profiling of dairy herds, we analyzed peripheral mononuclear cells and performed blood metabolic profiling of A, B and C dairy herds. The occurrence of peripaturient disease in Herd A and B was higher than it was in Herd C. In blood biochemical analysis, high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) was found in Herd A before calving. In herd B, levels of total cholesterol and glucose were higher compared with the levels in Herds A and C. In immunological analysis, the rates of CD4+/CD8+ and IFN-γ/IL-4 in Herd A was between one and four months lower compared with the rates in Herds B and C. These findings suggested that there is suppression of the cellular immunological function after calving in A dairy herd with insufficient nutriment feeding content during the dry period.
On January 9, 2004, 38 Holstein cows bred in Fukuoka Prefecture showed signs of respiratory symptoms with diarrhea. Milk production had diminished rapidly, and Bovine coronavirus (BCV) was initially isolated from nasal cavity swabs. After a two-week period of testing, the resulting rise in hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer (HI-titer) positively identified the presence of BCV. When testing for Bovine RS virus and Infectious Bronchitis Respiratory virus, neither could be isolated or confirmed by their antigen. Their resulting antibody titer did not rise, and no likely bacteria or parasites matching their symptoms were present in this case. BCV was therefore identified as the primary cause of the dairy cattle's respiratory disease.
Neutral glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adult form of cestoda, Dipylidium caninum. Based on the results of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining and gas liquid/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), their carbohydrate structures were characterized as belonging to the neogala series glycolipids. Serological analysis was positive with TLC immunostaining using rat serum infected with Hymenolepis diminuta. These findings suggest that this antigen can be used for diagnosis.
A ten-year-old male Japanese cat that presented with vomiting and anorexia was found to have a swollen right submandibular gland after palpation and X-ray examination. The extirpated gland was diagnosed as a malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland with rare morphology. There was no normal structure in any part of the tumor tissue and it was composed of nests of squamous cell carcinoma, myoepithelial proliferation with osteoid differentiation and osteosarcoma. There was no mucinous/chondromatous prolifeation. The present mixed tumor in the submandibular gland has not previously been reported in cats.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of cecum (case 1) and pylorus (case 2) were surgically removed and diagnosed in two dogs. Case 1 was clinically normal 10 months after surgery, whereas case 2 died of intraperitoneal metastasis 55 days after the operation. The percentage of cells that were Ki-67 positive were 4.4%(case 1) and 19.2%(case 2), and the mitosis index was 0.25% and 1.1%, respectively. The fact that case 1 had a favorable outcome while case 2 had a very poor result may suggest that canine GISTs have various outcomes. Ki-67 and mitosis index may be good prognostic factors for canine GISTs.
Besides lead poisoning of waterfowl, contamination of wild fauna with other toxic elements such as cadmium and thallium has also been reported in recent years. In this study, therefore, contamination with these three heavy metals was surveyed in Japanese black bears, sika deers, Japanese serows, Japanese hares and common cormorants by means of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Cadmium concentration was high in the kidneys of Japanese black bears and Japanese hares: 27 of 74 bears and five of 16 hares exhibited levels exceeded 10mg-Cd/kg. Lead concentrations were high in Japanese black bears and common cormorants. Five bears exhibited more than 2mg-Pb/kg in the liver, one of the criteria for lead contamination. No cormorants showed levels that exceeded the criterion. Thallium was not detected from any samples examined. These results suggest that cadmium exposure is relatively high in Japanese black bears and Japanese hares, and lead contamination may be occurring sporadically in Japanese black bears.
To examine the contamination process of the surface of animal carcasses in a slaughterhouse, the surface of the body of a hog was colored with stamp ink, and the degree of ink adhesion to the carcass during each process was observed. The main cause of ink adhesion (contamination) during each process was first cutting of the partial peeling, removal of the anus and full skinning, or runoff by wash water from the hanging upper body. Bacterial contamination on carcass areas with ink adhesion was significantly higher than it was on areas with non-adhesion. Since contamination of a carcass by full skinning covered a broad range, contamination can be significantly reduced by closing the upper discharge spout of the skin stripper wash water. This examination showed the bacterial contamination to workers and proved extremely useful for hygiene education.