Pig sera collected from breeding sows in one farm in Hokkaido prefecture were diagnosed as antibody-positive with a commercial ELISA of classical swine fever (CSF) in 2002 and 2003. However, an on-site inspection and virological examination concluded that an outbreak of CSF in this pig farm was negative. As a result of further ongoing inspections, antibody-positive sera with this ELISA were confirmed again from the sows, which had no history of vaccination against CSF. To specify the causative virus that had infected these pigs, the neutralization titers of the sera against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were compared with those against bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) and border disease virus (BDV), since these viruses are classified in the samepestivirusgenus. As a result, neutralization titers against BVDV NOSE strain were markedly higher than those against CSFV, BDV and other BVDV strains. From the data and from epidemiological investigations revealing indirect contact between a pig and a cow, it is concluded that the pigs on this farm were infected with BVDV. This report concludes that infections of pigs with BVDV and BDV should be considered important cases for the laboratory diagnosis of CSF.
The appearance of betaine in duodenal digesta was investigated using four steers with cannula in the duodenum. At 6 a.m., each steer was administered orally with doses of 0, 10, 25, or 50g of the betaine dissolved in 200ml of distilled water. One hundred ml of duodenal digesta were collected at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24h after dosing. Betaine concentrations in duodenal digesta were measured by HPLC. Betaine was detected at 9h after dosing with 10, 25, and 50g of betaine, and the concentrations in each treatment were 0.19mg/ml, 0.11mg/ml, and 0.54mg/ml, respectively. Betaine was also detected in the duodenal digesta at 12h after dosing with 25g of betaine. These in vivo data suggest that some of the betaine administered orally to the steers could escape ruminal degradation and flow into the duodenum.
Sixteen dogs with intracranial meningioma were reviewed. The mean age of the affected dogs was 9y3m (4y5m-12y). Seven of the dogs were male and the other nine female. Of the 16 meningioma cases, six involved Golden Retrievers and three Shetland sheep dogs. All dogs presented with various neurological abnormalities such as seizures, ataxia and compulsive walking. A MRI evaluation revealed intracranial lesions compatible with meningioma. A definitive diagnosis of these cases was made based on histopathological examination of the surgical (11 cases) and necropy (5 cases) specimens. Surgical resection was performed in 11 cases, nine cases of which were additionally treated with post-operative radiation. Two other dogs were treated by radiation alone and the rest of the dogs received only symptomatic therapy. Most dogs with surgery and/or radiation exhibited improvements in their clinical symptoms, and the median survival time of these dogs following surgery was 381 days (mean: 471 days, range: 13-1408 days).
A comparison of the diastolic function of the left ventricle in 13 cats diagnosed by various methods with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in ten healthy cats was conducted by measuring the left ventricular inflow and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT). Pulsed-wave doppler echocardiography on the left ventricular inflow revealed significant differences in early diastolic flow (E wave), atrial systolic flow (A wave), their ratio (E/A) and IVRT between the two groups. This suggests a diastolic function disorder, even in asymptomatic cats of the HCM group.
A four-year-old female mixed rabbit presented with anorexia and decreased defecation. The rabbit had a gastrostomy to remove a hairball 13 months previously. Gastroenterography using barium revealed retention and a passage disorder of the gastric contents; therefore, exploratory laparotomy as performed. The omentum that had adhered at the last gastrostomy site and degenerated intra-abdominal adipose tissue was identified. Consequently, decreased peristalsis of the stomach to the duodenum by the adhesion was suspected as the cause of the passage disorder. No hairball was found in the stomach. Several jelly-like mass lesions without capsule, dark red in color and 1-1.5cm in size, were recognized within the adipose tissue. Histopathological examinations revealed that the mass lesions consisted of necrotic fatty tissue, accumulation of macrophages with ceroid, and infiltration of neoplastic lymphocytes.
During the five years from 2001, we examined 120, 428 head of cattle in Kumamoto prefecture for BSE using two BSE screening kits. Of the 166 cattle whose samples were retested in the primary screening test, one was confirmed BSE-positive and the remaining samples were found to be false positive. The incidence of false positives with the Platelia BSE test was 0.11%(117/109, 149 cattle), and the false positive reactions tended to appear when variations of the optical density (OD) values were pronounced. The average of the OD values increased when the homogenates were exposed to heat. Thus it appears that in preventing false positive reactions, it is important to avoid heating the samples. On the other hand, with the Enfer BSE test, the incidence of false positive was 0.42%(47/11, 279 cattle). Retesting frequently occurred at inspection centers that used more than one plate, and the luminescence value of one of the duplicate wells tended to be elevated. These problems were improved by modifying the protocol for washing plates and preventing substrate oxidation. These results could provide useful indicators in the BSE screening tests.