A total of 43 wild birds (crows and hawfinches) in seven separate incidents were found dead during the spring from 2004 to 2006 in Iwate Prefecture. Pathological, toxicological and pathogenic examinations of the birds showed miosis and lacrimation. Observed pathological changes were characterized by severe congestion in the lungs, kidneys, liver and optical choroids, nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis and hypersecretion of the mucous glandular epithelia of digestive tracts. The gizzard contents contained organophosphates from the birds in five incidents and chemicals suggestive of carbamates from those in two incidents. Neither hemagglutinative viruses nor significant bacteria were isolated from the affected birds. Based on the results, the disease was diagnosed as poisoning caused by the detected chemicals.
Congenital internal hydrocephalus (CIHY), characterized by cranial doming, paresis and ataxia at birth, has been occurring in Japanese Black calves in Tohoku area since 1988. The sires of the affected calves were of the same pedigrees. Embryo transfer was used to investigate the causative genes by producing several calves from a cow that delivered a calf with CIHY. The cow was superovulated by FSH and inseminated with the frozen semen of the suspected bull. Ultimately, ten calves were birthed from the recipient cows, with five showing symptoms of hydrocephalus. Clinically, four of the affected calves showed paresis, cranial doming and strabissumus. One calf showed a chronic convulsion and ataxia at 29 days and died. The pathological finding noted bilateral enlarged ventricles with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid. Gene scanning was performed with microsatelite markers using tissues and blood from five of the affected calves and five full-sib calves and the splenic tissues of eighteen half-sib calves that were embedded in paraffine for pathological study. The suspected gene was found near the centromere of chromosome 3 (BTA3). Using DNA markers, the common region of CIHY was found to be between MB101 and DIK069. The pidemiological findings clarified this CIHY as a single autosomal recessive disease.
Parapoxvirus infection with severe suppurative necrotizing encephalitis was observed in Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus). Diffuse papular and nodular lesions of the lip, oral mucosa and infraorbital pouch gland were characterized by acanthosis, edematous swellings and intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Inclusions were positive for anti-parapoxvirus antibody immunohistochemically and mature viral particles were demonstrated electron microscopically. In addition to the mucosal lesions, unilateral suppurative inflammation in the infraorbital pouch gland, nasal sinus and brain with Gram positive bacterial infection were observed. These results suggest that primary parapoxvirus infection in the cutaneous or oral areas preceded the secondary bacterial infection into the nasal cavity and brain.
Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine-needle aspirates (FNA) or core biopsies of lung lesions were performed in nine dogs and five cats. A clinical diagnosis was obtained in twelve of fourteen animals (85%), namely 80% FNA and 100% core biopsies. Eight animals had other mass (es) apart from the lung, and five were diagnosed to metastases. In only one case, the lung mass was histopathologically diagnosed as a malignant primary tumor. Iatrogenic complications through the lung biopsies were noted in four animals, and three showed mild pneumothorax on CT images and one was bleeding from the needle. However, between fifteen and thirty minutes after the biopsy, no animal indicated signs of pneumothorax or hemorrhage.
A four-year-old female Scottish Fold presented with a fifteen-month history of inappropriate urination (spraying). The cat was diagnosed with a urine marking behavior caused by anxiety over the frequent appearances of other cats. An environmental modification in combination with a synthetic analogue of feline facial pheromone reduced the incidence of urine marking. By SSRI (paroxetine) administration, the urine marking behavior was eliminated, but resumed when the cat came into estrus in the medicine withdrawal period. The cat was spayed and the urine marking behavior is now being well controlled in the same modified environment without pharmacological treatment.
Real-time PCR assay (the TaqMan probe method) was evaluated for the detection of DNA of genus Erysipelothrix directly from chronic arthritic fluids of swine with erysipelas. By using a QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen) for DNA extraction, the time frame was less than 4hrs. With this method, in most cases the number ofErysipelothrixorganisms in the synovial fluids was estimated to be less than 102 cfu per milliliter. The combination of the test results of synovial fluids by enrichment cultivation, real-time PCR and antibody assay by Surface protective antigen (SpaA)-ELISA may give information that is important to understanding the condition of the disease.