To determine the causative factors for milk fever, the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) during a closeup period, the blood level and the urine excretion rate of calcium were examined in periparturient cows, in a herd with high milk fever incidence (A; n=6) and a herd with no milk fever incidence (B; n=6). DCAD was lower in herd A (14.0mEq/100g) compared with the level in herd B (23.2mEq/100g). Cows in herd A showed lower levels of blood calcium (7.63mg/dl) on the day of calving and magnesium around parturition compared with those in herd B. There were no differences between the two herds in terms of blood phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. Urine calcium and magnesium excretion rates were almost identical in both herds, whereas the magnesium excretion rate three days before and urine pH four days before calving were lower in herd A than they were in herd B. The present data, revealing lower DCAD in the close-up diet and lower blood calcium values in parturient cows of the herd with a high incidence of milk fever, suggests that factors other than DCAD such as calcium content in the diet may play an important role in preventing milk fever.
Aortopulmonary window was observed in a five-day-old male Horstein calf. The aortic and pulmonary valves were completely separated by the conus septum, and the distal part of the pulmonary trunk was atretic and disappeared. The heart was associated with atrial and ventricular septal defects, double outlet right ventricle and single coronary artery.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter spp. in the stomach was used to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori and Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs and cats. Of 40 each of dogs and cats, none was positive for H. pylori. Helicobacter spp. was detected in 23 (58%) of 40 dogs and 17 (43%) of 40 cats. These results had no relationship with clinical symptoms and endoscopic views. The concordance rate between the PCR-positive cases and the urease test positive cases was as high as 83% in dogs and 94% in cats, respectively.
Feline plasma insulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit recently developed in Japan. The kit showed high sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Plasma insulin concentration at fasting was significantly correlated with body condition score, suggesting the existence of insulin resistance in obese cats. Plasma insulin showed biphasic secretion after an intravenous glucose load in normal cats. In a cat with diabetes, the glucose load led to an attenuated initial rise in serum insulin concentration, suggesting reduced insulin secretion capacity.
Five milk-spotted livers (field cases), three normal livers from slaughter house, five samples from Ascaris suum-infected pigs (experimental cases) and three control cases were examined for bacterial isolation and immunohistochemical detection of enteric bacteria. Several kinds of bacteria were isolated from all cases. The total number of isolated bacteria from field cases was larger than that from normal livers, and the difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, Escherichia coli were isolated from all field cases and one experimental case. The immunolabelling gram-negative rod bacteria were found in hepatic sinusoids, the interlobular bile ducts and Glisson's sheath in 2 field cases and one experimental case. It i suggested that large number of isolated bacteria from field cases is associated with larval migrations in liver, although we could not find the relationship between the immunohistochemical distribution of positive antigens of enteric bacteria and hepatic white spot lesions.