Gizzard erosion of broiler chicks accompanied by severe hemorrhage and sudden death at two to three weeks of age was investigated virologically and serologically. Fowl adenovirus serotype 1 (FAV1) was isolated from the affected gizzard, and an antibody to FAV1 was detected with higher positive rates in this and nearby farms, but not in remote farms, suggesting FAV1 had already invaded some farms around this farm. The pathogenicity of the present FAV1 isolated to broiler chicks with maternal antibody was shown to be almost same as FAV1 isolated from a slaughtered bird previously. The factors influencing the occurrence of gizzard erosion in young broiler chicks have not been cleared, but could involve subclinical gizzard erosions due to FAV1 infection at early ages of broiler.
A case-control study was conducted to analyze the risk factors associated with clinical salmonellosis caused bySalmonellaTyphimurium (ST) on dairy farms in Japan. On the studied farms, the average proportion of cows with ST isolations was 37%(95%CI; 18.4-55.8%). Higher probability ratios for clinical ST infection were found on farms where: the surface of the feed container is made of concrete; there were no partitions between feed containers and the cow bedding; a continuous water supply system is used; and disinfection of the floor of the lactation facilities is not conducted. Proper management practices to eliminate these risk factors may reduce the risk of ST infection.
Absent Pulmonary Valve Syndrome was observed in a three day old male calf. Instead of the semilunar cusps, there was an irregular rim of low elevation of the arterial tunica intima. The heart was found to have ventricular septal defect, mild stenosis of the pulmonary valve annulus and infundibulum, marked dilatation of the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, agenesis of the ductus arteriosus, double cranial vena cava, secundum atrial septal defect, aberrant left subclavian artery and single coronary artery. The lower part of the trachea was compressed mildly by the dilated pulmonary artery.
The clinical safety of long-term (three to 26 months) administration of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, temocapril hydrochloride, was evaluated in 30 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR). Dogs were classified into three groups by mode of administration (ACE alone or combined with cardiac medications) and clinical signs (NYHA functional classification): ACE-alone group (14 dogs), combination-III group (11 dogs) and combination-IV group (five dogs). During testing periods, clinical symptoms tended to progress gradually. RBC and WBC counts, ALT and ALP activities, as well as Na and Cl concentrations did not change significantly. K concentrations remained at normal levels in dogs of all groups, including in dogs medicated with temocapril in combination with spironolactone and furosemide. In some dogs of the ACE-alone and combination-III groups, BUN concentrations increased slightly, but plasma creatinine (CRE) concentrations maintained normal levels. BUN concentrations rose along with CRE concentrations in the combination-IV group. It was confirmed that dogs with MR could receive long-term administration of temocapril without problems.
Three runted broiler chickens had osteomyelitis. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the lesions of osteomyelitis. Based on their biological characteristics, they were identified asStaphylococcus hyicus. The present study suggests thatS. hyicusis associated with osteomyelitis in the broilers.