A retrospective survey was performed on 85 Thoroughbred horses diagnosed as guttural pouch mycosis from 1991 to 2006, including the treatment methodologies and their outcomes. The primary symptoms were epistaxis (n=73), dysphagia (n=11), and purulent nasal discharge (n=1). Five of 13 (38.5%) non-treated horses survived. Seven of 13 (53.8%) horses survived, and were treated medically with topical application under endoscopy and injection of antifungal drug, or blood transfusion. Six of nine (66.7%) horses survived with surgery of the internal and/or external carotid arterial ligation. All four (100.0%) horses survived with a combination of ligation and balloon catheter embolization of the internal carotid artery. Thirty-nine of 46 (84.8%) horses survived with a combination of the ligation and microcoil embolization. The results suggest the need for the ligation of internal and/or external carotid arteries in cases of epistaxis associated with guttural pouch mycosis. Microcoil embolization was an effective and practical procedure for preventing arterial bleeding by retrograde flow.
On a pig fattening farm in Akita， Japan， a 40-day-old castrated shoat showed eminence of the left temporal area and growth delay， and was humanely put down. At necropsy， the cut surface of a mass in the temporal bone was composed of multifocal yellowish white necrotic foci and abundant white connective tissue. Histologically， the lesion consisted of multifocal granulomatous osteomyelitis with numerous fungal hyphae. The fungal hyphae were positively immunolabeled with a monoclonal antibody against Rhizopus arrhizus. On the basis of these findings， this case was diagnosed as granulomatous osteomyelitis caused by zygomycetes.
A Holstein cow (two years and five months old) with jugular vein distension and non-inflammatory edema in the brisket showed decreased heart sound and abnormal waves on an electrocardiogram. Dilated cardiomyopathy was suspected. Unilateral pleural effusion was recovered from the right pleural cavity and found to be degenerated transudations. An ultrasonic cardiogram detected pericardial fluid. A pathological examination revealed that the pericardial cavity was enlarged with a diameter of 60cm. Blood-like fluid was recovered with no cells of inflammation or neoplasia. Although the cause of bloody pericardial fluid remains unknown， unilateral pleural and pericardial effusion can result from physical trauma to the thoracic cavity. Findings suggest hemorrhaging into the pericardial cavity should be listed in the differential diagnosis as a cause of pericardial effusion.
For 58 cases of canine mast cell tumors， we measured the tumor volume reduction following one to four weeks of treatment with prednisolone administered once per day. The median dose of prednisolone was 21.5 mg/m2. We observed tumor reduction in 35 cases， with a response rate of 60.4%. In addition， the median times for obtaining a complete or partial response were 14 and 10.5 days， respectively. Among the response group of 35 cases (complete response = 7， partial response=28) and the non-response group of 23 cases (no change [stable disease] = 18， additional sweｌling [progressive disease] =5)， we observed a significant difference in the initial tumor volume (P < 0.001)， with the median volume being 2.69 cm3 for the response group and 18.85 cm3 for the non-response group. We have therefore reconfirmed the importance of using prednisolone as a treatment for canine mast cell tumors and we have clearly shown that the smaller the tumor volume， the more effective the prednisolone treatment wiｌl be.
Surgically excised masses in the upper eyelid of both eyes were diagnosed as feline lipogranulomatous conjunctivitis. At presentation， the cat had bilateral blepharoptosis with swelling of the upper eyelids and no systemic abnormalities. The inversion of the upper eyelid showed a yellowish white mass on the palpebral conjunctiva and a part of the mass overreached from the eyelid margin. Histologically， there were numerous pyogranulomatous inflammatory foci with large free lipid droplets in the conjunctival lamina propria. Ruptured Meibomian glands were not included in the sections. Complete excision has proven curative and the prognosis has been good to date.
A 8-year-old 11-kg female Bull Terrier was admitted for evaluation of a diastolic heart murmur. Echocardiography was performed and mitral stenosis diagnosed. A survey of thoracic radiographs revealed pulmonary edema. We used enarapril and trasemide for the initial treatment and cut only trasemide at 240 days. We performed open mitral commissurotomy under a cardio-pulmonary bypass at 492 days. After closing the heart，mitral inflow velocity was lower than it was preoperation. The dog was euthanatized because of signs of cerebral death. There was cartilage metaplasia and myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve in pathological histology. This case indicates that early surgical treatment is necessary for difficult cases preserved by medical treatment and it is required to properly estimate the degree of mitral valve disorder and investigate the valvoplasty and valve replacement of the mitral valve.
A rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with leukemic mediastinal lymphoma，which had not responded to steroid therapy，received the alkylating agent Lomustine (50 mg/m2) twice at 21-day intervals until complete remission was achieved. No serious side effects were encountered， other than a slight increase in serum ALP level. The rabbit died due to renal failure 91 days after the second administration of Lomustine. The survival time was 128 days in this case.
To investigate the prevalence of avian malaria protozoa in probable vector species in Japan， we collected mosquitoes in Fujisawa， Kanagawa prefecture in Japan from April 2006 to March 2007. Eight hundred eleven mosquitoes from six species were captured by dry ice traps and human bait methods. The main species collected were the Culex and Aedes genuses. Samples were extracted from the collected mosquitoes and were used for avian malaria detection. Using PCR， six of 276 DNA samples were found positive for the partial mitochondrial cytb gene of avian Plasmodium (2.2%). Estimated minimum infection rate was 0.7% in this study. Mosquito species of positive samples were all from the Culex genus. The Culex genus could be a possible vector species of avian Plasmodium in the area studied.