Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) 21, 27, 11, and 4 of the 63 strain isolated between 1989 and 2007 in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan were classified into genotype 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2a, respectively, through phylogenetic analysis of 327bp of their E2 gene sequences. There was a high homology of 99.0% to 100% in the phylogenetic tree of 663bp of the E2 gene sequences of the BVDV which were isolated in cattle bred on farms which use the public ranch. These results suggest that the spread of BVDV through the public ranch is one of the main routes for the spread of BVDV in Tochigi Prefecture. The BVDV inspection which we performed on pastured cattle prevented cattle persistently infected with BVDV from pasturing on a public ranch, and kept BVDV from spreading through the ranches in Tochigi Prefecture. The BVDV inspection is therefore thought to be a useful method for preventing the spread of BVDV.
A 22-month-old, Holstein heifer was presented with anorexia, emaciation, cyanosis, rough vesicular breathing, and coughing on the first day. On day 14, cardiovascular symptoms such as tachycardia and jugular vein pulsation were found. A blood and blood biochemical examination revealed chronic inflammation. High echogenic obstruction without any attachment to the tricuspid valve was observed in the right atrium by echocardiograph. Pathological findings confirmed a diagnosis of caudal vena cava thrombosis. It was believed to be a rare case with thrombus in the heart.
Autogenous activated lymphocytes were sequentially administered as an adjuvant antitumor therapy to 10 dogs with spontaneous malignant tumors in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Hokkaido University. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor-bearing dogs were proliferated and activated for 14 days in culture using anti-canine CD3 antibody and human recombinant IL-2. The cells obtained were reactivated using IL-2 and human recombinant IFN-α. After sequential administration of these activated lymphocytes, proportions of CD4＋cells and CD8＋cells were changed in the peripheral blood in all cases, while serum IFN-γ concentration increased in two cases. These results suggest the possibility of strengthening cell-mediated immunity. The general physical conditions of all 10 patients remained stable, and the patients were comfortable during the entire period of lymphocyte administration. This shows that the quality of life of these tumor-bearing dogs was maintained in a relatively favorable state, with no evidence of any adverse effects in response to the sequential infusion of activated lymphocytes. As an adjuvant antitumor therapy, activated lymphocyte therapy is therefore believed to be applicable to and effective for tumor-bearing animals whose immunity may be somewhat suppressed. This therapy may encourage cell-mediated immunity against tumor growth and distant metastasis.
A histopathological study was performed on forty canines diagnosed as having post-operative suture granuloma. Seventeen of the forty cases were Miniature dachshund, twenty-two were male and eighteen female. The median age was 5.04 years. Suture sites were located in the inguinal region, subcutis of the abdomen and the abdominal cavity. Twenty-seven of the forty had been castrated or spayed. More than half of the forty samples were silk sutures, followed by absorbable multifilament sutures. Histopathologically, the lesions mainly consisted of pyogranuloma and necrotizing granuloma that contained suture materials in the center of the lesion. However nodular lesions without sutures were also observed. The lesions were more severe where silk and absorbable multifilament sutures were used than others. In the present study, it was suggested that the frequency of occurrence of suture granuloma differs by suture material and breed, and that the most common cause was a castration or spaying operation.
A nine-year-old intact female Shiba dog with an intrathoracic mass was presented. The radiographs revealed a bulky mass in the abdomen and a precordial mass. Histologically, ovarian dysgerminoma and metastasis to the sternal lymph node were suspected. The dog was treated with cisplatin and radiotherapy. The mass decreased dramatically and was removed surgically after four doses of cisplatin. After the surgery, the dog was treated with etoposide but the treatment was discontinued due to side effects. There have not been any signs of recurrence or metastases during approximately seven months since the surgery.
A seven-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever that presented with dilated cardiomyopathy with fainting episodes was treated with Mexiletine (3 mg/kg, q12 h). The canine achieved remission of the clinical symptoms for more than one year under this treatment regimen. However, when the canine started to have fainting spells again caused by ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular contraction, the blood concentration of Mexiletine was checked. It was found to be below the effective level. Therefore, the dosing interval was shortened (3 mg/kg, q8 h) to maintain an effective blood concentration of the drug, and the fainting episodes abated. These results suggest that in patients on Mexiletine, the blood concentration of Mexiletine should be measured when indicated by the clinical signs, and the dosage adjusted according to the measurement results.