The nerve tissues from a Japanese black 8-month-old calf diagnosed with postnatal Akabane disease based on the results of the Akabane virus (AKAV) isolation were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to investigate the distribution and degree of lesions and AKAV antigens. Lesions of nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, glial nodules and gliosis were found mainly in the brain stem, and were principally localized in the cerebral and periventricular white matter rather than in the cerebral gray matter. Meanwhile, the lesions were observed most remarkably in the spinal gray matter, and they had extended to the white matter of the lumber and sacral spinal cord. AKAV antigens were detected in the nerve cells and their processes of the brainstem, spinal ventral horn and root, and within the glial cells in the cerebral white matter and perivascular infiltrating macrophages in the meninges. Positive immunolabellings for AKAV were also detected in the infiltrating macrophages around the peripheral nerves in the skeletal muscles, while there were no significant lesions in the muscular fibers. These findings may indicate that the primary target of the postnatal AKAV infection are neurons and nerve fibers in the brainstem and spinal cord.
We examined the effect of the measurement conditions of rumen osmolality in cattle using freezing point methods. Rumen fluid was collected from ruminally cannulated healthy Holstein cattle. When the crystallization temperature of the osmometer was set as －5.6 ℃, the standard for blood plasma, osmolality was not able to be measured in the samples at all. When rumen fluid samples were subjected to supercooling, the samples were coagulated in the range of －3.9 to －5.5 ℃. Therefore, when the crystallization temperature of the osmometer was set as －3.7 ℃, osmolality was able to be measured in all samples. The osmolality of rumen fluid filtered using a double cheesecloth had a high level compared with samples carried out by centrifugation, or filtration with the membrane filter (0.45 or 0.20 μm pore-sized). After it was frozen and then thawed, rumen fluid showed a lower osmolality than samples that had not been frozen.
A four-year-old castrated male mixed-breed cat suspected of hydronephrosis was referred to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Abdominal radiography revealed enlarged kidneys, and renal ultrasonography detected anechoic cysts of various sizes in both kidneys. Genetic testing using the PCR-RFLP method identified a mutation (3284C→A) in the PKD1 gene. The cat was therefore diagnosed with autosomal dominantly-inherited polycystic kidney disease. At initial presentation to our Veterinary Teaching Hospital, hematological examination showed azotemia and hyperphosphatemia. The cat received peritoneal dialysis for a short duration. Subsequently, it was treated by fluid therapy and prescription diet for renal disease, and monitored for about one year. An analysis of cystic fluid collected from several cysts of both kidneys showed persistently high concentrations of chloride anion and sodium cation. This finding was observed throughout the follow-up period. In addition, the concentration of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and the value of NAG isozyme B tended to increase with the progression of renal failure.
A 21-month-old male American cocker spaniel presented with depression, anorexia, and ataxia. Plasma biochemical abnormalities included elevations of ALT, TP, Glb, and Ca. CBC abnormalities included anemia and leukopenia. Moreover, the serum protein electrophoretogram indicated monoclonal gammopathy. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone marrow aspirate analysis indicated bone lysis resulting from multiple myeloma and compression of the spinal cord. The patient showed no clinical response (improvement in leukopenia and levels of TP and Ca) to therapy with cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and prednisone,but responded quickly to vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD chemotherapy in field of medicine). Moreover, the patient's quality of life improved. Nonetheless, on day 103 of the illness, the patient died of tetraplegia and dyspnea.