A Japanese Black cow, 7 years of age and 8 months pregnant, showed anemia, fever, watery diarrhea, and emaciation, and died after abortion. Trypanosoma-like parasites were detected in the blood film, and identified as Trypanosoma (T.) theileri by morphology and PCR analyses for the differentiating Trypanosoma species. No other hemoparasites were detected in the blood. At necropsy, lymph nodes of the whole body and the spleen were found to be swollen. Neoplastic proliferations of lymphoid cells were found in the main organs and lymph nodes. A fragment of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) gene was amplified in the lymph node sample by PCR. Anti-BLV antibodies were weakly detected in the serum sample using an immunodifusion test. These findings indicated that the animal developed trypanosomosis together with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). It was considered that unusual growth of T. theileri parasites was induced under mixed conditions of aging, stress of pregnancy, EBL, and bacterial infections. An additional consideration could be that parasite growth was in fact an outcome of the progress of EBL.
This study was carried out to determine the effect of Sugar Cane Extract (SCE) on immune performance in piglets. Eighteen piglets whose initial and final bodyweight were 30 kg and 70 kg, respectively, were assigned to three dietary treatment groups : no SCE supplemental diet without dietary antimicrobial supplement (control diet), a control diet with 0.05% dietary supplement SCE, and a control diet with dietary antimicrobial supplement. Each of the three groups comprised almost equal numbers of piglets from two breeding sows. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was significantly higher (P＜0.01) in the SCE diet group than in the other groups. CD4 lymphocytes were significantly higher (P＜0.05) in the SCE diet group than in the antimicrobial diet group. Average daily gain in the SCE diet group was higher than in the other groups, and feed conversions in the SCE diet and the antimicrobial diet groups were higher than in the control group. These results suggest that SCE improves the reinforcement of the helper T-cell immune response, improving the protective capacity and productivity in growing piglets.
We evaluated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) with regard to its utility in diagnosing equine rhinopneumonitis (ERV) in aborted fetuses. The LAMP assay was compared with the current EHV-1 antigen detection method using the complement fixation (CF) method.The LAMP assay and the CF method were performed using 115 samples, comprising 58 lungs and 57 thymuses collected from 58 aborted fetuses. The LAMP assay detected EHV-1 in 48 samples collected from aborted fetuses diagnosed with ERV, whereas the CF method only detected EHV-1 in 41 of 48 samples. The LAMP assay detected EHV-1 in 2 of 64 samples, which were diagnosed with non-ERV by the CF method. These two samples were positive for EHV-1 by a PCR assay. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is more sensitive and specific than the CF method. In addition, the LAMP assay was able to diagnose three samples, which were unable to be diagnosed using the CF method because of anti-complement reaction. The LAMP assay should be useful in the diagnosis of ERV in aborted fetuses.
In the present study, we compared the activities of anti-Brucella canis agglutination antibodies obtained by the traditionally used tube agglutination (TA) method and the microtiter method (MA). In addition, we studied the relationships between hemoglobin (HGB) concentration, considered to be a factor in nonspecific agglutination, and the nonspecific agglutination activity by analyzing dog plasma samples. The results from MA and TA were in complete accordance in all dog plasma samples obtained from 72 seronegative and 46 seropositive dogs. A high correlation coefficient (R ＝0.938) was shown between agglutination titers (log) tested by both methods. To study the effect of hemolysis, we obtained whole blood samples from nine specific-pathogen free(SPF) beagles and then intentionally hemolyzed the samples. The supernatants were diluted to various concentrations of HGB and the agglutination titers were determined. The results obtained showed a high correlation coefficient (R ＝0.912) between the HGB concentrations and agglutination titers. The lowest HGB concentration was 0.5 g/dl among diluents with 1 : 160 or higher antibody titers (positive criterion). These observations suggested that HGB was an important factor in nonspecific agglutination, and therefore, that predetermination of HGB concentration would be helpful in testing hemolyzed plasma.
The concentration of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitaminD [1,25(OH)2D], was measured in a Welsh Corgi Pembroke with a primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). The serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D was 242 ± 55 pg/ml(mean ± SD, total of seven measurements) in the dog with PHP and 98 ± 30 pg/ml in clinically normal dogs (n ＝8). In the dog with PHP, the serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D decreased after surgical removal of a parathyroid mass. These findings suggest that the elevation of serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration could be a useful marker for evaluating the diagnosis of a dog with PHP.