Non-vaccinated flocks and vaccinated flocks against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) virus were adjacently raised in the same pen at a layer chicken farm in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. In January 2009, non-vaccinated flocks showed watery eyes, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and serious conjunctivitis. Six chickens were examined. Similar pathological and microbiological findings were obtained from the chickens. Necropsy revealed yellowish caseous exudate in the infraorbital sinuses and nasal cavities, and hypertrophy of the nasal mucosa. Histopathologically, many intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells and fibrinopurulent exudates with gram-negative bacilli were detected in the infraorbital sinuses and nasal cavities. On microbiological examination, ILT virus and Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) capsular type A were isolated from swabs of the infraorbital sinus. The virus showed small unclear border plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane, and consistent RFLP patterns and ICP4 gene sequences with the vaccine strains of vaccinated flocks. This farm had not had an occurrence of ILT for a long time, and vaccinated flocks were in peak laying season. These results indicated that the isolated virus was an ILT vaccine strain of vaccinated chickens, and it was transmitted to the non-vaccinated chickens. The ILT virus and P. multocida infection would have induced the facial swelling.
Diarrhea and pneumonia are observed frequently in dysgenic calves. The development of an immune function, nutritive conditions, or the growth of calves during the suckling period is closely associated with the incidence of infectious disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the growth condition and the endocrine or immune function in suckling Holstein calves. We observed 40 suckling Holstein calves that exhibited no signs of illness. Fourteen calves (Low Weight Group, n ＝14) that did not reach the standard weight provided by Japanese feeding standard for dairy cattle (2006), while the other reached twen ty-six calves (Control Group, n ＝26) did. We measured the Body Condition Score of all calves, as well as the peripheral leukocyte population, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) mRNA expression of cytokines and growth hormone (GH) receptor (R), and performed cortisol-R, serum GH, or cortisol blood analysis. The Low Weight Group was found to have a significantly lower width of the thorax level. The numbers of the periph eral TcR1-N12 ＋γδT cells were significantly lower in the Low Weight Group than in the Control Group. Compared with the Control Group, the Low Weight Group should significant lower concentrations of serum growth hormone and levels of PBMCs mRNA of IL-4, IL-12, growth hormone, and cortisol receptor. These findings suggested that the immune function was reduced insuckling calves with poor body width.
Two psittacine birds, a Sun conure (Aratinga solstitialis) and an Indian ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) imported in 2007 and 2008, respectively, died suddenly at a pet shop in the suburbs of Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. In necropsy, both dead birds showed similar macroscopic lesions, with hemorrhaging in subcutaneous tissue and in several internal organs, such as the heart, lung, liver, spleen and small intestine. Histopathologically, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis lesions were found in the liver. Typical basophilic intranuclear inclusions were formed within the Kupffer cells in the liver and within the MSP cells in the spleen. In the PCR method, polyomaviral DNA were detected from the livers, spleens and intestines of both birds. Therefore, the cases were diagnosed as avian polyomavirus infection. It was suggested that viral infection occurred before their arrival at the pet shop, given the incubation period of this disease and the clinical condition of other birds housed in the same facility.
A 5-year-old, male Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was referred to our hospital for detailed cardiac examination. No abnormality was found in cardiac tests, but there was evidence of left-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter. As a primary disease could not be determined by ultrasound and intravenous urography, exploratory laparotomy was performed. Laparotomy revealed a left ureter passing dorsally to the caudal vena cava and then turning toward the ventral aspect of the caudal vena cava. From these findings, left-sided retrocaval ureter was diagnosed.