We investigated the effects of immunization against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-2 with a two-step vaccination program using attenuated live BVDV1 after immunizing by inactivated BVDV1 and BVDV2 vaccine. Fifteen calves that had taken adequate colostrum from a dairy farm in the Nemuro District of Hokkaido, Japan,were used. The calves were divided into three groups: Group A was inoculated with one dose of inactivated BVDV1 and BVDV2 vaccine. Group B was inoculated with inactivated BVDV1 and BVDV2 vaccine at first and then inoculated with a live vaccine containing BVDV1 (a two-step vaccine program). Group C was inoculated with only one dose of live BVDV1 vaccine. The antibody titer against BVDV2 in group B was significantly higher than that in group A and C after inoculation with the live BVDV1 vaccine. This result suggested that the two-step vaccine program using in this study is useful for enhancing antibody titers against BVDV2.
Enzootic bovine leukosis was suspected in a Holstein cow aged 5-years and 6-months, as it displayed symptoms of epistaxis, proptosis, and melena. However, clinicopathological findings failed to confirm a diagnosis of bovine leukosis, and histopathological findings revealed a nasal osteosarcoma. As the case lacked typical findings of nasal tumor such as sneezing and facial deformity, a nasal tumor diagnosis would have been difficult.
A freemartin of Holstein calf (7 months old) accompanied with penile hypospadias was clinically investigated and a pair of testis-like tissue was extracted from the subcutaneous thigh. Sex chromosomal analyses showed XX/XY chimeras in the blood, whereas the XX female type was present in the kidney and spleen. Pathological examination revealed the marked spongy body of the penis, prostate gland, and vesicular gland, whereas the female gonad and müllerian duct remained as rudimentary funiculi. These findings suggested that the calf was a freemartin with hypospadias and ectopic testicles in a morphological anomaly of the urinary tracts with severe masculinization.
We investigated the relationship between the progression of a cataract and the size or cell population density of its lens epithelial cells (LEC) in canines. The middle fraction of the cell size observed in normal dogs and in dogs with mature and hypermature cataracts was 210-230 μm2, 250-270μm2, and 270-290 μm2, respectively. The cell population density was 3954 ± 260 cells/mm2and 3130 ± 195 cells/mm2, respectively. Mature cataracts accounted for 85% and hypermature cataracts for 67% compared with the normal. It was speculated that as cataracts progressed, cell volume varied markedly and cell size or cell volume increased while cell population density decreased.
Acute renal failure was treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) and recirculation peritoneal dialysis (RPD) in two dogs. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) and the amount of removal of Cr were evaluated in the dialyses. Ccr and the amount of removal of Cr with RPD were higher than with PD. It was suggested that RPD raises dialysis efficiency.
Five cases of feline paragonimosis were diagnosed in the upper basin of the Ooi river in Shizuoka prefecture. Coughing was the common clinical sign. Pulmonary radiographic lesions were classified into three types, nodular or ring-formed lesions and atelectatic shadows, which were seen independently or in combination with the other one or two. Ring-formed lesions were a characteristic sign in this disorder, not found in any other feline pulmonary disease. Each lesion disappeared within 40 days of administering antiparasitic medication.