An outbreak of equine disease with pyrexia and anorexia occurred from December 2004 to March 2005, affecting 191 heavy horses (about 30 percent of stabled horses) at the drafthhorse racecourse in Obihiro City, Hokkaido, Japan. Neutralization antibody titers to bovine coronavirus rose significantly in 14 paired sera out of 21 diseased horses. A highly homologous gene to that of equine coronavirus (NC99) was detected in fecal samples from the diseased horses. However, known pathogens and genes excluding the coronavirus were not detected from any pituita or fecal samples from the diseased horses. In addition, the antibody titers did not rise significantly in the serological tests of 21 diseased horses for equine herpes virus type 1, equine influenza virus, getah virus, equine rotavirus, equine rhinitis A virus, equine adenovirus, equine arteritis virus, strangles, and equine paratyphoid. From these facts, it was inferable that the outbreak of the disease was caused by infection with equine coronavirus.
A total of 1,223 porcine sera collected from a slaughterhouse located in Taku city, Saga prefecture, and from farms throughout Saga prefecture were tested with virus neutralization assay (VNA) for five vector-borne bovine arboviruses : bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), Akabane (AKA), Aino (AINO), Chuzan (CHU), and Peaton (PEA) virus. The positive rates in sera for five viruses were respectively BEFV 0% (0/607), AKAV 12.0% (93/778), AINOV 22.4% (236/1,052), CHUV 0% (0/607), PEAV 2.7% (7/263). The positive rates at farms for three viruses were AKAV 42.0% (29/69), AINOV 40.6% (26/64), PEAV 35.3% (6/17). These results indicate that AKAV, AINOV, and PEAV are prevalent among swine in Saga prefecture.
An experimental inoculation of Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus (PBFDV) was implemented to reproduce the peracute form of PBFD. Five newly hatched cockatiels free of PBFDV antibodies were inoculated intramuscularly with the viral emulsion, and investigated histopathologically at 1, 3, 4, 6, and 10 weeks after inoculation. Also, etiological examination with PCR analysis of tissues from various organs was performed. Although the results of PCR showed that infection with PBFDV was established after three weeks, the clinical signs and histopathology were consistent with those of acute PBFD rather than those of peracute PBFD. These results suggest that newly hatched cockatiels infected with PBFDV showed the acute form of PBFD, and that experimental reproduction of the peracute form may be difficult.
The effect of surgical excision and/or medical treatments mainly with the administration of leuprolide acetate in 58 ferrets was retrospectively investigated. Among histological types, a 6-month survival rate was the lowest in ferrets with adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, however nearly 70% of the patients survived. In addition, none of the ferrets showed evidence of metastasis. Among 58 ferrets, 25 received surgery alone, 13 received both surgery and medical treatments, and 20 received medical treatments alone. A 6-month survival rate was the lowest in ferrets treated with surgery alone, while all but one of the other 33 ferrets survived for at least 6 months. In a ferret treated with leuprolide, continuous hyperglycemia was detected. The results may indicate that surgery is recommended in young healthy ferrets in which the affected adrenal gland could be completely excised, while medical treatment is recommended in older or higher risk patients.
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. The pathogens cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals, and fever, myalgia, and arthralgia in humans. Recently, many cases of group infections with Brucella canis have been reported in Japan. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of B. canis antibodies in dogs in Japan using the tube agglutination test. Antibodies to B. canis were detected in 35 (3.0%) of the 1,158 serum samples collected from various kinds of dogs in 30 prefectures. The positive rates were found to be 3.8% in male and 2.3% in female dogs, respectively. These results suggest that B. canis infection may still be prevalent in dogs across a wide area of Japan.